• ADAP Promotes Degranulation and Migration of NK Cells Primed During vivo Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Mice.

      Böning, Martha A L; Trittel, Stephanie; Riese, Peggy; van Ham, Marco; Heyner, Maxi; Voss, Martin; Parzmair, Gerald P; Klawonn, Frank; Jeron, Andreas; Guzman, Carlos A; et al. (Frontiers, 2019-01-01)
      The adhesion and degranulation-promoting adaptor protein (ADAP) serves as a multifunctional scaffold and is involved in the formation of immune signaling complexes. To date only limited and moreover conflicting data exist regarding the role of ADAP in NK cells. To extend existing knowledge we investigated ADAP-dependency of NK cells in the context of in vivo infection with the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Ex vivo analysis of infection-primed NK cells revealed impaired cytotoxic capacity in NK cells lacking ADAP as indicated by reduced CD107a surface expression and inefficient perforin production. However, ADAP-deficiency had no global effect on NK cell morphology or intracellular distribution of CD107a-containing vesicles. Proteomic definition of ADAPko and wild type NK cells did not uncover obvious differences in protein composition during the steady state and moreover, similar early response patterns were induced in NK cells upon infection independent of the genotype. In line with protein network analyses that suggested an altered migration phenotype in naïve ADAPko NK cells, in vitro migration assays uncovered significantly reduced migration of both naïve as well as infection-primed ADAPko NK cells compared to wild type NK cells. Notably, this migration defect was associated with a significantly reduced expression of the integrin CD11a on the surface of splenic ADAP-deficient NK cells 1 day post-Lm infection. We propose that ADAP-dependent alterations in integrin expression might account at least in part for the fact that during in vivo infection significantly lower numbers of ADAPko NK cells accumulate in the spleen i.e., the site of infection. In conclusion, we show here that during systemic Lm infection in mice ADAP is essential for efficient cytotoxic capacity and migration of NK cells.
    • Inactivation of Lgt allows systematic characterization of lipoproteins from Listeria monocytogenes.

      Baumgärtner, Maja; Kärst, Uwe; Gerstel, Birgit; Loessner, Martin; Wehland, Jürgen; Jänsch, Lothar; Department of Cell Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2007-01)
      Lipoprotein anchoring in bacteria is mediated by the prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt), which catalyzes the transfer of a diacylglyceryl moiety to the prospective N-terminal cysteine of the mature lipoprotein. Deletion of the lgt gene in the gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (i) impairs intracellular growth of the bacterium in different eukaryotic cell lines and (ii) leads to increased release of lipoproteins into the culture supernatant. Comparative extracellular proteome analyses of the EGDe wild-type strain and the Delta lgt mutant provided systematic insight into the relative expression of lipoproteins. Twenty-six of the 68 predicted lipoproteins were specifically released into the extracellular proteome of the Delta lgt strain, and this proved that deletion of lgt is an excellent approach for experimental verification of listerial lipoproteins. Consequently, we generated Delta lgt Delta prfA double mutants to detect lipoproteins belonging to the main virulence regulon that is controlled by PrfA. Overall, we identified three lipoproteins whose extracellular levels are regulated and one lipoprotein that is posttranslationally modified depending on PrfA. It is noteworthy that in contrast to previous studies of Escherichia coli, we unambiguously demonstrated that lipidation by Lgt is not a prerequisite for activity of the lipoprotein-specific signal peptidase II (Lsp) in Listeria.
    • The MprF protein is required for lysinylation of phospholipids in listerial membranes and confers resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) on Listeria monocytogenes.

      Thedieck, Kathrin; Hain, Torsten; Mohamed, Walid; Tindall, Brian J; Nimtz, Manfred; Chakraborty, Trinad; Wehland, Jürgen; Jänsch, Lothar; Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Division of Cell and Immune Biology, Cellular Proteomics Group, Inhoffenstrasse 7, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2006-12)
      Pathogenic bacteria have to cope with defence mechanisms mediated by adaptive and innate immunity of the host cells. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) represent one of the most effective components of the host innate immune response. Here we establish the function of Lmo1695, a member of the VirR-dependent virulence regulon, recently identified in Listeria monocytogenes. Lmo1695 encodes a membrane protein of 98 kDa with strong homology to the multiple peptide resistance factor (MprF) of Staphylococcus aureus. Like staphylococcal MprF, we found that Lmo1695 is involved in the synthesis of the membrane phospholipid lysylphosphatidylglycerol (L-PG). In addition, Lmo1695 is also essential for lysinylation of diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), another phospholipid widely distributed in bacterial membranes. A Deltalmo1695 mutant lacking the lysinylated phospholipids was particularly susceptible to CAMPs of human and bacterial origin. The mutant strain infected both epithelial cells and macrophages only poorly and was attenuated for virulence when tested in a mouse model of infection. Lmo1695 is a member of a growing list of survival factors which enable growth of L. monocytogenes in different environments.