• Enduring Changes in Neuronal Function upon Systemic Inflammation Are NLRP3 Inflammasome Dependent.

      Beyer, Marianna M S; Lonnemann, Niklas; Remus, Anita; Latz, Eicke; Heneka, Michael T; Korte, Martin (Society for Neuroscience, 2020-06-04)
      Neuroinflammation can be caused by various insults to the brain and represents an important pathologic hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Infection-triggered acute systemic inflammation is able to induce neuroinflammation and may negatively affect neuronal morphology, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function. In contrast to acute effects, persisting consequences for the brain on systemic immune stimulation remain largely unexplored. Here, we report an age-dependent vulnerability of wild-type (WT) mice of either sex toward a systemic immune stimulation by Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Decreased neuronal complexity three months after peripheral immune stimulation is accompanied by impairment in long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial learning. Aged APP/PS1 mice reveal an increased sensitivity also to LPS of Escherichia coli, which had no effect in WT mice. We further report that these effects are mediated by NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation, since the genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition using the NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 rescue the morphological and electrophysiological phenotype.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Acute peripheral immune stimulation has been shown to have both positive and negative effects on Aβ deposition. Improvements or worsening may be possible in acute inflammation. However, there is still no evidence of effects longer than a month after stimulation. The data are pointing to an important role of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome for mediating the long-term consequences of systemic immune stimulation, which in addition turns out to be age dependent.
    • Immune Challenge Alters Reactivity of Hippocampal Noradrenergic System in Prenatally Stressed Aged Mice.

      Grigoryan, Gayane; Lonnemann, Niklas; Korte, Martin; HZI, Helmholtz Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig Germany. (Hindawi, 2019-01-01)
      Prenatal stress (PS) has long-term sequelae for the morphological and functional status of the central nervous system of the progeny. A PS-induced proinflammatory status of the organism may result in an impairment of both hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent memory formation in adults. We addressed here the question of how PS-induced alterations in the immune response in young and old mice may contribute to changes in hippocampal function in aging. Immune stimulation (via
    • The NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor OLT1177 rescues cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

      Lonnemann, Niklas; Hosseini, Shirin; Marchetti, Carlo; Skouras, Damaris B; Stefanoni, Davide; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Dinarello, Charles A; Korte, Martin; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (National Academy of Sciences, 2020-11-30)
      Numerous studies demonstrate that neuroinflammation is a key player in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interleukin (IL)-1β is a main inducer of inflammation and therefore a prime target for therapeutic options. The inactive IL-1β precursor requires processing by the the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome into a mature and active form. Studies have shown that IL-1β is up-regulated in brains of patients with AD, and that genetic inactivation of the NLRP3 inflammasome improves behavioral tests and synaptic plasticity phenotypes in a murine model of the disease. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome using dapansutrile (OLT1177), an oral NLRP3-specific inhibitor that is safe in humans. Six-month-old WT and APP/PS1 mice were fed with standard mouse chow or OLT1177-enriched chow for 3 mo. The Morris water maze test revealed an impaired learning and memory ability of 9-mo-old APP/PS1 mice (P = 0.001), which was completely rescued by OLT1177 fed to mice (P = 0.008 to untreated APP/PS1). Furthermore, our findings revealed that 3 mo of OLT1177 diet can rescue synaptic plasticity in this mouse model of AD (P = 0.007 to untreated APP/PS1). In addition, microglia were less activated (P = 0.07) and the number of plaques was reduced in the cortex (P = 0.03) following NLRP3 inhibition with OLT1177 administration. We also observed an OLT1177 dose-dependent normalization of plasma metabolic markers of AD to those of WT mice. This study suggests the therapeutic potential of treating neuroinflammation with an oral inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome.