• Ly6G deficiency alters the dynamics of neutrophil recruitment and pathogen capture during Leishmania major skin infection.

      Kleinholz, Corinna L; Riek-Burchardt, Monika; Seiß, Elena A; Amore, Jonas; Gintschel, Patricia; Philipsen, Lars; Bousso, Philippe; Relja, Borna; Schraven, Burkhart; Handschuh, Juliane; et al. (NPG, 2021-07-23)
      Neutrophils represent one of the first immune cell types recruited to sites of infection, where they can control pathogens by phagocytosis and cytotoxic mechanisms. Intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania major can hijack neutrophils to establish an efficient infection. However the dynamic interactions of neutrophils with the pathogen and other cells at the site of the infection are incompletely understood. Here, we have investigated the role of Ly6G, a homolog of the human CD177 protein, which has been shown to interact with cell adhesion molecules, and serves as a bona fide marker for neutrophils in mice. We show that Ly6G deficiency decreases the initial infection rate of neutrophils recruited to the site of infection. Although the uptake of L. major by subsequently recruited monocytes was tightly linked with the concomitant uptake of neutrophil material, this process was not altered by Ly6G deficiency of the neutrophils. Instead, we observed by intravital 2-photon microscopy that Ly6G-deficient neutrophils entered the site of infection with delayed initial recruitment kinetics. Thus, we conclude that by promoting neutrophils' ability to efficiently enter the site of infection, Ly6G contributes to the early engagement of intracellular pathogens by the immune system.
    • PI3Kγ deficiency delays the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ameliorates its clinical outcome.

      Berod, Luciana; Heinemann, Christina; Heink, Sylvia; Escher, Angelika; Stadelmann, Christine; Drube, Sebastian; Wetzker, Reinhard; Norgauer, Johannes; Kamradt, Thomas (2011-03)
      PI3Ks control signal transduction triggered by growth factors and G-protein-coupled receptors and regulate an array of biological processes, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, survival and migration. Herein, we investigated the role of PI3Kγ in the pathogenesis of EAE. We show that, in the absence of PI3Kγ expression, clinical signs of EAE were delayed and mitigated. PI3Kγ-deficient myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)(35-55) -specific CD4(+) T cells appeared later in the secondary lymphoid organs and in the CNS than their WT counterparts. Transfer of WT CD4(+) cells into PI3Kγ(-/-) mice prior to MOG(35-55) immunisation restored EAE severity to WT levels, supporting the relevance of PI3Kγ expression in Th cells for the pathogenesis of EAE; however, PI3Kγ was dispensable for Th1 and Th17 differentiation, thus excluding an altered expression of these pathogenetically relevant cytokines as the cause for ameliorated EAE in PI3Kγ(-/-) mice. These findings demonstrate that PI3Kγ contributes to the development of autoimmune CNS inflammation.
    • Rapid Sequestration of Leishmania mexicana by Neutrophils Contributes to the Development of Chronic Lesion.

      Hurrell, Benjamin P; Schuster, Steffen; Grün, Eva; Coutaz, Manuel; Williams, Roderick A; Held, Werner; Malissen, Bernard; Malissen, Marie; Yousefi, Shida; Simon, Hans-Uwe; et al. (2015-05)
      The protozoan Leishmania mexicana parasite causes chronic non-healing cutaneous lesions in humans and mice with poor parasite control. The mechanisms preventing the development of a protective immune response against this parasite are unclear. Here we provide data demonstrating that parasite sequestration by neutrophils is responsible for disease progression in mice. Within hours of infection L. mexicana induced the local recruitment of neutrophils, which ingested parasites and formed extracellular traps without markedly impairing parasite survival. We further showed that the L. mexicana-induced recruitment of neutrophils impaired the early recruitment of dendritic cells at the site of infection as observed by intravital 2-photon microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Indeed, infection of neutropenic Genista mice and of mice depleted of neutrophils at the onset of infection demonstrated a prominent role for neutrophils in this process. Furthermore, an increase in monocyte-derived dendritic cells was also observed in draining lymph nodes of neutropenic mice, correlating with subsequent increased frequency of IFNγ-secreting T helper cells, and better parasite control leading ultimately to complete healing of the lesion. Altogether, these findings show that L. mexicana exploits neutrophils to block the induction of a protective immune response and impairs the control of lesion development. Our data thus demonstrate an unanticipated negative role for these innate immune cells in host defense, suggesting that in certain forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis, regulating neutrophil recruitment could be a strategy to promote lesion healing.
    • Targeted antigen delivery to dendritic cells elicits robust antiviral T cell-mediated immunity in the liver.

      Volckmar, Julia; Gereke, Marcus; Ebensen, Thomas; Riese, Peggy; Philipsen, Lars; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Wohlleber, Dirk; Klopfleisch, Robert; Stegemann-Koniszewski, Sabine; Müller, Andreas J; et al. (2017-03-07)
      Hepatotropic viruses such as hepatitis C virus cause life-threatening chronic liver infections in millions of people worldwide. Targeted in vivo antigen-delivery to cross-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) has proven to be extraordinarily efficient in stimulating antigen-specific T cell responses. To determine whether this approach would as well be suitable to induce local antiviral effector T cells in the liver we compared different vaccine formulations based on either the targeting of DEC-205 or TLR2/6 on cross-presenting DCs or formulations not involving in vivo DC targeting. As read-outs we used in vivo hepatotropic adenovirus challenge, histology and automated multidimensional fluorescence microscopy (MELC). We show that targeted in vivo antigen delivery to cross-presenting DCs is highly effective in inducing antiviral CTLs capable of eliminating virus-infected hepatocytes, while control vaccine formulation not involving DC targeting failed to induce immunity against hepatotropic virus. Moreover, we observed distinct patterns of CD8+ T cell interaction with virus-infected and apoptotic hepatocytes in the two DC-targeting groups suggesting that the different vaccine formulations may stimulate distinct types of effector functions. Our findings represent an important step toward the future development of vaccines against hepatotropic viruses and the treatment of patients with hepatic virus infection after liver transplantation to avoid reinfection.
    • TCR signalling network organization at the immunological synapses of murine regulatory T cells.

      van Ham, Marco; Teich, René; Philipsen, Lars; Niemz, Jana; Amsberg, Nicole; Wissing, Josef; Nimtz, Manfred; Gröbe, Lothar; Kliche, Stefanie; Thiel, Nadine; et al. (2017-08-17)
      Regulatory T (Treg) cells require T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling to exert their immunosuppressive activity, but the precise organization of the TCR signalling network compared to conventional T (Tconv) cells remains elusive. By using accurate mass spectrometry and multi-epitope ligand cartography (MELC) we characterized TCR signalling and recruitment of TCR signalling components to the immunological synapse (IS) in Treg cells and Tconv cells. With the exception of Themis which we detected in lower amounts in Treg cells, other major TCR signalling components were found equally abundant, however, their phosphorylation-status notably discriminates Treg cells from Tconv cells. Overall, this study identified 121 Treg cell-specific phosphorylations. Short-term triggering of T cell subsets via CD3 and CD28 widely harmonized these variations with the exception of eleven TCR signalling components that mainly regulate cytoskeleton dynamics and molecular transport. Accordingly, conjugation with B cells indeed caused variant cellular morphology and revealed a Treg cell-specific recruitment of TCR signalling components such as PKCθ, PLCγ1 and ZAP70 as well as B cell-derived CD86 into the IS. Together, results from this study support the existence of a Treg cell-specific IS and suggest Treg cell-specific cytoskeleton dynamics as a novel determinant for the unique functional properties of Treg cells.
    • Type I Interferon response in olfactory bulb, the site of tick-borne flavivirus accumulation, is primarily regulated by IPS-1.

      Kurhade, Chaitanya; Zegenhagen, Loreen; Weber, Elvira; Nair, Sharmila; Michaelsen-Preusse, Kristin; Spanier, Julia; Gekara, Nelson O; Kröger, Andrea; Överby, Anna K; Helmholtz Centre for infection research (HZI), Inhoffenstraße 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2016)
      Although type I interferons (IFNs)-key effectors of antiviral innate immunity are known to be induced via different pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), the cellular source and the relative contribution of different PRRs in host protection against viral infection is often unclear. IPS-1 is a downstream adaptor for retinoid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor signaling. In this study, we investigate the relative contribution of IPS-1 in the innate immune response in the different brain regions during infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a flavivirus that causes a variety of severe symptoms like hemorrhagic fevers, encephalitis, and meningitis in the human host.