• Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa.

      Zamora, Juan Carlos; Svensson, Måns; Kirschner, Roland; Olariaga, Ibai; Ryman, Svengunnar; Parra, Luis Alberto; Geml, József; Rosling, Anna; Adamčík, Slavomír; Ahti, Teuvo; et al. (2018-06-01)
      Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.
    • One stop shop IV: taxonomic update with molecular phylogeny for important phytopathogenic genera: 76–100 (2020)

      Jayawardena, Ruvishika S.; Hyde, Kevin D.; Chen, Yi Jyun; Papp, Viktor; Palla, Balázs; Papp, Dávid; Bhunjun, Chitrabhanu S.; Hurdeal, Vedprakash G.; Senwanna, Chanokned; Manawasinghe, Ishara S.; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-09-24)
      This is a continuation of a series focused on providing a stable platform for the taxonomy of phytopathogenic fungi and fungus-like organisms. This paper focuses on one family: Erysiphaceae and 24 phytopathogenic genera: Armillaria, Barriopsis, Cercospora, Cladosporium, Clinoconidium, Colletotrichum, Cylindrocladiella, Dothidotthia,, Fomitopsis, Ganoderma, Golovinomyces, Heterobasidium, Meliola, Mucor, Neoerysiphe, Nothophoma, Phellinus, Phytophthora, Pseudoseptoria, Pythium, Rhizopus, Stemphylium, Thyrostroma and Wojnowiciella. Each genus is provided with a taxonomic background, distribution, hosts, disease symptoms, and updated backbone trees. Species confirmed with pathogenicity studies are denoted when data are available. Six of the genera are updated from previous entries as many new species have been described.
    • Retiboletus (Boletaceae) in northern Thailand: one novel species and two first records

      Chuankid, Boontiya; Vadthanarat, Santhiti; Thongbai, Benjarong; Stadler, Marc; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Hyde, Kevin David; Raspé, Olivier; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Elsevier, 2021-01-01)
      Morphological characters and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses were used to identify Retiboletus specimens collected in northern Thailand. Retiboletus brevibasidiatus is described as new to science, whereas R. fuscus and R. nigrogriseus are reported for the first time from Thailand. Retiboletus brevibasidiatus produces medium-sized basidiomes, with a dark blonde to clay pileus and densely reticulate stipe mostly on the upper part with pale yellow to chrome yellow basal mycelium. It is difficult to separate R. brevibasidiatus from other closely related species on the basis of macroscopic characters. However, the new species can be distinguished by microscopic characters, mostly the shorter basidia. The macro- and micro-morphology of the R. fuscus and R. nigrogriseus collections from Thailand fit well with the previous descriptions of materials from China and Japan. Detailed descriptions, molecular phylogeny, and illustrations of the three species are provided.
    • Secondary metabolites of Phlebopus species from Northern Thailand

      Chuankid, Boontiya; Schrey, Hedda; Thongbai, Benjarong; Raspé, Olivier; Arnold, Norbert; Hyde, Kevin David; Stadler, Marc; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer.com, 2020-12-01)
      Submerged cultures of the edible mushrooms Phlebopus portentosus and Phlebopus spongiosus were screened for their secondary metabolites by HPLC-UV/Vis and HR-LC-ESI-MS. Two new compounds, 9′-hydroxyphenyl pulvinone (1), containing an unusual pulvinone structure, and phlebopyron (2), together with the seven known pigments, atromentic acid (3), xerocomic acid (4), variegatic acid (5), methyl atromentate (6), methyl isoxerocomate (7), methyl variegatate (8), and variegatorubin (9) were isolated from the cultures. Their structures were assigned on the basis of extensive 1D/2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, as well as HR-ESI-MS, and HR-ESI-MS/MS measurements. Furthermore, the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. 9′-hydroxyphenyl pulvinone (1), xerocomic acid (4), and methyl variegatate (8) exhibited weak to moderate cytotoxic activities against several tumor cell lines. The present paper provides a comprehensive characterization of pigments from the class of pulvinic acids that are present in the basidiomes of many edible bolete species.
    • Study of three interesting Amanita species from Thailand: Morphology, multiple-gene phylogeny and toxin analysis.

      Thongbai, Benjarong; Miller, Steven L; Stadler, Marc; Wittstein, Kathrin; Hyde, Kevin D; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Raspé, Olivier; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017)
      Amanita ballerina and A. brunneitoxicaria spp. nov. are introduced from Thailand. Amanita fuligineoides is also reported for the first time from Thailand, increasing the known distribution of this taxon. Together, those findings support our view that many taxa are yet to be discovered in the region. While both morphological characters and a multiple-gene phylogeny clearly place A. brunneitoxicaria and A. fuligineoides in sect. Phalloideae (Fr.) Quél., the placement of A. ballerina is problematic. On the one hand, the morphology of A. ballerina shows clear affinities with stirps Limbatula of sect. Lepidella. On the other hand, in a multiple-gene phylogeny including taxa of all sections in subg. Lepidella, A. ballerina and two other species, including A. zangii, form a well-supported clade sister to the Phalloideae sensu Bas 1969, which include the lethal "death caps" and "destroying angels". Together, the A. ballerina-A. zangii clade and the Phalloideae sensu Bas 1969 also form a well-supported clade. We therefore screened for two of the most notorious toxins by HPLC-MS analysis of methanolic extracts from the basidiomata. Interestingly, neither α-amanitin nor phalloidin was found in A. ballerina, whereas Amanita fuligineoides was confirmed to contain both α-amanitin and phalloidin, and A. brunneitoxicaria contained only α-amanitin. Together with unique morphological characteristics, the position in the phylogeny indicates that A. ballerina is either an important link in the evolution of the deadly Amanita sect. Phalloideae species, or a member of a new section also including A. zangii.
    • Taxonomy, Diversity and Cultivation of the Oudemansielloid/Xeruloid Taxa Hymenopellis, Mucidula, Oudemansiella, and Xerula and with Respect to Their Bioactivities: A Review.

      Niego, Allen Grace; Raspé, Olivier; Thongklang, Naritsada; Charoensup, Rawiwan; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Stadler, Marc; Hyde, Kevin D; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2021-01-13)
      The oudemansielloid/xeruloid taxa Hymenopellis, Mucidula, Oudemansiella, and Xerula are genera of Basidiomycota that constitute an important resource of bioactive compounds. Numerous studies have shown antimicrobial, anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and other bioactivities of their extracts. The bioactive principles can be divided into two major groups: (a) hydrophilic polysaccharides with relatively high molecular weights and (b) low molecular medium polar secondary metabolites, such as the antifungal strobilurins. In this review, we summarize the state of the art on biodiversity, cultivation of the fungi and bioactivities of their secondary metabolites and discuss future applications. Although the strobilurins are well-documented, with commercial applications as agrochemical fungicides, there are also other known compounds from this group that have not yet been well-studied. Polysaccharides, dihydro-citrinone phenol A acid, scalusamides, and acetylenic lactones such as xerulin, also have potential applications in the nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and medicinal market and should be further explored. Further studies are recommended to isolate high quality bioactive compounds and fully understand their modes of action. Given that only few species of oudemansielloid/xeruloid mushrooms have been explored for their production of secondary metabolites, these taxa represent unexplored sources of potentially useful and novel bioactive metabolites.