• The amazing potential of fungi: 50 ways we can exploit fungi industrially

      Hyde, Kevin D.; Xu, Jianchu; Rapior, Sylvie; Jeewon, Rajesh; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Niego, Allen Grace T.; Abeywickrama, Pranami D.; Aluthmuhandiram, Janith V.S.; Brahamanage, Rashika S.; Brooks, Siraprapa; et al. (Springer, 2019-07-31)
      Fungi are an understudied, biotechnologically valuable group of organisms. Due to the immense range of habitats that fungi inhabit, and the consequent need to compete against a diverse array of other fungi, bacteria, and animals, fungi have developed numerous survival mechanisms. The unique attributes of fungi thus herald great promise for their application in biotechnology and industry. Moreover, fungi can be grown with relative ease, making production at scale viable. The search for fungal biodiversity, and the construction of a living fungi collection, both have incredible economic potential in locating organisms with novel industrial uses that will lead to novel products. This manuscript reviews fifty ways in which fungi can potentially be utilized as biotechnology. We provide notes and examples for each potential exploitation and give examples from our own work and the work of other notable researchers. We also provide a flow chart that can be used to convince funding bodies of the importance of fungi for biotechnological research and as potential products. Fungi have provided the world with penicillin, lovastatin, and other globally significant medicines, and they remain an untapped resource with enormous industrial potential.
    • Antiviral 4-Hydroxypleurogrisein and Antimicrobial Pleurotin Derivatives from Cultures of the Nematophagous Basidiomycete .

      Sandargo, Birthe; Thongbai, Benjarong; Praditya, Dimas; Steinmann, Eike; Stadler, Marc; Surup, Frank; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2018-10-19)
      4-Hydroxypleurogrisein, a congener of the anticancer-lead compound pleurotin, as well as six further derivatives were isolated from the basidiomycete Hohenbuehelia grisea, strain MFLUCC 12-0451. The structures were elucidated utilizing high resolution electron spray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data and evaluated for their biological activities; for leucopleurotin, we provide Xray data. While most congeners showed moderate antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity, 4-hydroxypleurogrisein emerged as an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus infectivity in mammalian liver cells.
    • Biological and chemical diversity go hand in hand: Basidiomycota as source of new pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.

      Sandargo, Birthe; Chepkirui, Clara; Cheng, Tian; Chaverra-Muñoz, Lillibeth; Thongbai, Benjarong; Stadler, Marc; Hüttel, Stephan; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Elsevier, 2019-02-07)
      The Basidiomycota constitutes the second largest higher taxonomic group of the Fungi after the Ascomycota and comprises over 30.000 species. Mycelial cultures of Basidiomycota have already been studied since the 1950s for production of antibiotics and other beneficial secondary metabolites. Despite the fact that unique and selective compounds like pleuromutilin were obtained early on, it took several decades more until they were subjected to a systematic screening for antimicrobial and anticancer activities. These efforts led to the discovery of the strobilurins and several hundreds of further compounds that mainly constitute terpenoids. In parallel the traditional medicinal mushrooms of Asia were also studied intensively for metabolite production, aimed at finding new therapeutic agents for treatment of various diseases including metabolic disorders and the central nervous system. While the evaluation of this organism group has in general been more tedious as compared to the Ascomycota, the chances to discover new metabolites and to develop them further to candidates for drugs, agrochemicals and other products for the Life Science industry have substantially increased over the past decade. This is owing to the revolutionary developments in -OMICS techniques, bioinformatics, analytical chemistry and biotechnological process technology, which are steadily being developed further. On the other hand, the new developments in polythetic fungal taxonomy now also allow a more concise selection of previously untapped organisms. The current review is dedicated to summarize the state of the art and to give an outlook to further developments.
    • Lentinulactam, a hirsutane sesquiterpene with an unprecedented lactam modification

      Helaly, Soleiman E.; Richter, Christian; Thongbai, Benjarong; Hyde, Kevin D.; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2016-12)
    • Microfungi associated with Clematis (Ranunculaceae) with an integrated approach to delimiting species boundaries

      Phukhamsakda, Chayanard; McKenzie, Eric H. C.; Phillips, Alan J. L.; Gareth Jones, E. B.; Jayarama Bhat, D.; Stadler, Marc; Bhunjun, Chitrabhanu S.; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N.; Thongbai, Benjarong; Camporesi, Erio; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-07-07)
      The cosmopolitan plant genus Clematis contains many climbing species that can be found worldwide. The genus occurs in the wild and is grown commercially for horticulture. Microfungi on Clematis were collected from Belgium, China, Italy, Thailand and the UK. They are characterized by morphology and analyses of gene sequence data using an integrated species concept to validate identifications. The study revealed two new families, 12 new genera, 50 new species, 26 new host records with one dimorphic character report, and ten species are transferred to other genera. The new families revealed by multigene phylogeny are Longiostiolaceae and Pseudomassarinaceae in Pleosporales (Dothideomycetes). New genera are Anthodidymella (Didymellaceae), Anthosulcatispora and Parasulcatispora (Sulcatisporaceae), Fusiformispora (Amniculicolaceae), Longispora (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Neobyssosphaeria (Melanommataceae), Neoleptosporella (Chaetosphaeriales, genera incertae sedis), Neostictis (Stictidaceae), Pseudohelminthosporium (Neomassarinaceae), Pseudomassarina (Pseudomassarinaceae), Sclerenchymomyces (Leptosphaeriaceae) and Xenoplectosphaerella (Plectosphaerellaceae). The newly described species are Alloleptosphaeria clematidis, Anthodidymella ranunculacearum, Anthosulcatispora subglobosa, Aquadictyospora clematidis, Brunneofusispora clematidis, Chaetosphaeronema clematidicola, C. clematidis, Chromolaenicola clematidis, Diaporthe clematidina, Dictyocheirospora clematidis, Distoseptispora clematidis, Floricola clematidis, Fusiformispora clematidis, Hermatomyces clematidis, Leptospora clematidis, Longispora clematidis, Massariosphaeria clematidis, Melomastia clematidis, M. fulvicomae, Neobyssosphaeria clematidis, Neoleptosporella clematidis, Neoroussoella clematidis, N. fulvicomae, Neostictis nigricans, Neovaginatispora clematidis, Parasulcatispora clematidis, Parathyridaria clematidis, P. serratifoliae, P. virginianae, Periconia verrucose, Phomatospora uniseriata, Pleopunctum clematidis, Pseudocapulatispora clematidis, Pseudocoleophoma clematidis, Pseudohelminthosporium clematidis, Pseudolophiostoma chiangraiense, P. clematidis, Pseudomassarina clematidis, Ramusculicola clematidis, Sarocladium clematidis, Sclerenchymomyces clematidis, Sigarispora clematidicola, S. clematidis, S. montanae, Sordaria clematidis, Stemphylium clematidis, Wojnowiciella clematidis, Xenodidymella clematidis, Xenomassariosphaeria clematidis and Xenoplectosphaerella clematidis. The following fungi are recorded on Clematis species for the first time: Angustimassarina rosarum, Dendryphion europaeum, Dermatiopleospora mariae, Diaporthe ravennica, D. rudis, Dichotomopilus ramosissimum, Dictyocheirospora xishuangbannaensis, Didymosphaeria rubi-ulmifolii, Fitzroyomyces cyperacearum, Fusarium celtidicola, Leptospora thailandica, Memnoniella oblongispora, Neodidymelliopsis longicolla, Neoeutypella baoshanensis, Neoroussoella heveae, Nigrograna chromolaenae, N. obliqua, Pestalotiopsis verruculosa, Pseudoberkleasmium chiangmaiense, Pseudoophiobolus rosae, Pseudoroussoella chromolaenae, P. elaeicola, Ramusculicola thailandica, Stemphylium vesicarium and Torula chromolaenae. The new combinations are Anthodidymella clematidis (≡ Didymella clematidis), A. vitalbina (≡ Didymella vitalbina), Anthosulcatispora brunnea (≡ Neobambusicola brunnea), Fuscohypha kunmingensis (≡ Plectosphaerella kunmingensis), Magnibotryascoma rubriostiolata (≡ Teichospora rubriostiolata), Pararoussoella mangrovei (≡ Roussoella mangrovei), Pseudoneoconiothyrium euonymi (≡ Roussoella euonymi), Sclerenchymomyces jonesii (≡ Neoleptosphaeria jonesii), Stemphylium rosae (≡ Pleospora rosae), and S. rosae-caninae (≡ Pleospora rosae-caninae). The microfungi on Clematis is distributed in several classes of Ascomycota. The analyses are based on morphological examination of specimens, coupled with phylogenetic sequence data. To the best of our knowledge, the consolidated species concept approach is recommended in validating species.
    • Polyketide-Derived Secondary Metabolites from a Dothideomycetes Fungus, . et . ., (Muyocopronales) with Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities.

      Mapook, Ausana; Macabeo, Allan Patrick G; Thongbai, Benjarong; Hyde, Kevin D; Stadler, Marc; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-04-08)
      Pseudopalawania siamensisgen. et sp. nov., from northern Thailand, is introduced based on multi-gene analyses and morphological comparison. An isolate was fermented in yeast malt culture broth and explored for its secondary metabolite production. Chromatographic purification of the crude ethyl acetate (broth) extract yielded four tetrahydroxanthones comprised of a new heterodimeric bistetrahydroxanthone, pseudopalawanone (1), two known dimeric derivatives, 4,4'-secalonic acid D (2) and penicillixanthone A (3), the corresponding monomeric tetrahydroxanthone paecilin B (4), and the known benzophenone, cephalanone F (5). Compounds 1-3 showed potent inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Compounds 2 and 3 were inhibitory against Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 1.0 and 4.2 μg/mL, respectively. Only compound 2 showed activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. In addition, the dimeric compounds 1-3 also showed moderate cytotoxic effects on HeLa and mouse fibroblast cell lines, which makes them less attractive as candidates for development of selectively acting antibiotics.
    • Secondary metabolites of Phlebopus species from Northern Thailand

      Chuankid, Boontiya; Schrey, Hedda; Thongbai, Benjarong; Raspé, Olivier; Arnold, Norbert; Hyde, Kevin David; Stadler, Marc; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer.com, 2020-12-01)
      Submerged cultures of the edible mushrooms Phlebopus portentosus and Phlebopus spongiosus were screened for their secondary metabolites by HPLC-UV/Vis and HR-LC-ESI-MS. Two new compounds, 9′-hydroxyphenyl pulvinone (1), containing an unusual pulvinone structure, and phlebopyron (2), together with the seven known pigments, atromentic acid (3), xerocomic acid (4), variegatic acid (5), methyl atromentate (6), methyl isoxerocomate (7), methyl variegatate (8), and variegatorubin (9) were isolated from the cultures. Their structures were assigned on the basis of extensive 1D/2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, as well as HR-ESI-MS, and HR-ESI-MS/MS measurements. Furthermore, the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. 9′-hydroxyphenyl pulvinone (1), xerocomic acid (4), and methyl variegatate (8) exhibited weak to moderate cytotoxic activities against several tumor cell lines. The present paper provides a comprehensive characterization of pigments from the class of pulvinic acids that are present in the basidiomes of many edible bolete species.
    • Study of three interesting Amanita species from Thailand: Morphology, multiple-gene phylogeny and toxin analysis.

      Thongbai, Benjarong; Miller, Steven L; Stadler, Marc; Wittstein, Kathrin; Hyde, Kevin D; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Raspé, Olivier; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017)
      Amanita ballerina and A. brunneitoxicaria spp. nov. are introduced from Thailand. Amanita fuligineoides is also reported for the first time from Thailand, increasing the known distribution of this taxon. Together, those findings support our view that many taxa are yet to be discovered in the region. While both morphological characters and a multiple-gene phylogeny clearly place A. brunneitoxicaria and A. fuligineoides in sect. Phalloideae (Fr.) Quél., the placement of A. ballerina is problematic. On the one hand, the morphology of A. ballerina shows clear affinities with stirps Limbatula of sect. Lepidella. On the other hand, in a multiple-gene phylogeny including taxa of all sections in subg. Lepidella, A. ballerina and two other species, including A. zangii, form a well-supported clade sister to the Phalloideae sensu Bas 1969, which include the lethal "death caps" and "destroying angels". Together, the A. ballerina-A. zangii clade and the Phalloideae sensu Bas 1969 also form a well-supported clade. We therefore screened for two of the most notorious toxins by HPLC-MS analysis of methanolic extracts from the basidiomata. Interestingly, neither α-amanitin nor phalloidin was found in A. ballerina, whereas Amanita fuligineoides was confirmed to contain both α-amanitin and phalloidin, and A. brunneitoxicaria contained only α-amanitin. Together with unique morphological characteristics, the position in the phylogeny indicates that A. ballerina is either an important link in the evolution of the deadly Amanita sect. Phalloideae species, or a member of a new section also including A. zangii.
    • Successful cultivation of a valuable wild strain of Lepista sordida from Thailand

      Thongbai, Benjarong; Wittstein, Kathrin; Richter, Christian; Miller, Steven L.; Hyde, Kevin D.; Thongklang, Naritsada; Klomklung, Namphung; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz Centre for infection researchGmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-01-06)