• Diversely Functionalised Cytochalasins through Mutasynthesis and Semi-Synthesis.

      Wang, Chongqing; Lambert, Christopher; Hauser, Maurice; Deuschmann, Adrian; Zeilinger, Carsten; Rottner, Klemens; Stradal, Theresia E B; Stadler, Marc; Skellam, Elizabeth J; Cox, Russell J; et al. (Wiley-VCH, 2020-06-02)
      Mutasynthesis of pyrichalasin H from Magnaporthe grisea NI980 yielded a series of unprecedented 4'-substituted cytochalasin analogues in titres as high as the wild-type system (≈60 mg L-1 ). Halogenated, O-alkyl, O-allyl and O-propargyl examples were formed, as well as a 4'-azido analogue. 4'-O-Propargyl and 4'-azido analogues reacted smoothly in Huisgen cycloaddition reactions, whereas p-Br and p-I compounds reacted in Pd-catalysed cross-coupling reactions. A series of examples of biotin-linked, dye-linked and dimeric cytochalasins was rapidly created. In vitro and in vivo bioassays of these compounds showed that the 4'-halogenated and azido derivatives retained their cytotoxicity and antifungal activities; but a unique 4'-amino analogue was inactive. Attachment of larger substituents attenuated the bioactivities. In vivo actin-binding studies with adherent mammalian cells showed that actin remains the likely intracellular target. Dye-linked compounds revealed visualisation of intracellular actin structures even in the absence of phalloidin, thus constituting a potential new class of actin-visualisation tools with filament-barbed end-binding specificity.