• Synthesis and Bioactivity of Ancorinoside B, a Marine Diglycosyl Tetramic Acid

      Soliga, Kevin J; Bär, Sofia I; Oberhuber, Natalie; Zeng, Haoxuan; Schrey, Hedda; Schobert, Rainer; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2021-10-19)
      The sponge metabolite ancorinoside B was prepared for the first time in 16 steps and 4% yield. It features a β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucuronic acid tethered to a d-aspartic acid-derived tetramic acid. Key steps were the synthesis of a fully protected d-lactose derived thioglycoside, its attachment to a C20-aldehyde spacer, functionalization of the latter with a terminal N-(β-ketoacyl)-d-aspartate, and a basic Dieckmann cyclization to close the pyrrolidin-2,4-dione ring with concomitant global deprotection. Ancorinoside B exhibited multiple biological effects of medicinal interest. It inhibited the secretion of the cancer metastasis-relevant matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, and also the growth of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms by ca 87% when applied at concentrations as low as 0.5 µg/mL. This concentration is far below its MIC of ca 67 µg/mL and thus unlikely to induce bacterial resistance. It also led to a 67% dispersion of preformed S. aureus biofilms when applied at a concentration of ca 2 µg/mL. Ancorinoside B might thus be an interesting candidate for the control of the general hospital, catheter, or joint protheses infections.