• Macrooxazoles A-D, New 2,5-Disubstituted Oxazole-4-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives from the Plant Pathogenic Fungus .

      Matio Kemkuignou, Blondelle; Treiber, Laura; Zeng, Haoxuan; Schrey, Hedda; Schobert, Rainer; Stadler, Marc; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-11-24)
      In our ongoing search for new bioactive fungal metabolites, four previously undescribed oxazole carboxylic acid derivatives (1-4) for which we proposed the trivial names macrooxazoles A-D together with two known tetramic acids (5-6) were isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus Phoma macrostoma. Their structures were elucidated based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The hitherto unclear structure of macrocidin Z (6) was also confirmed by its first total synthesis. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against a panel of bacteria and fungi. Cytotoxic and anti-biofilm activities of the isolates are also reported herein. The new compound 3 exhibited weak-to-moderate antimicrobial activity as well as the known macrocidins 5 and 6. Only the mixture of compounds 2 and 4 (ratio 1:2) showed weak cytotoxic activity against the tested cancer cell lines with an IC50 of 23 µg/mL. Moreover, the new compounds 2 and 3, as well as the known compounds 5 and 6, interfered with the biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, inhibiting 65%, 75%, 79%, and 76% of biofilm at 250 µg/mL, respectively. Compounds 5 and 6 also exhibited moderate activity against S. aureus preformed biofilm with the highest inhibition percentage of 75% and 73% at 250 µg/mL, respectively.
    • Meroterpenoids: A Comprehensive Update Insight on Structural Diversity and Biology.

      Nazir, Mamona; Saleem, Muhammad; Tousif, Muhammad Imran; Anwar, Muhammad Aijaz; Surup, Frank; Ali, Iftikhar; Wang, Daijie; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Z; Alshammari, Elham; Ashour, Mohamed L; et al. (MDPI, 2021-06-29)
      Meroterpenoids are secondary metabolites formed due to mixed biosynthetic pathways which are produced in part from a terpenoid co-substrate. These mixed biosynthetically hybrid compounds are widely produced by bacteria, algae, plants, and animals. Notably amazing chemical diversity is generated among meroterpenoids via a combination of terpenoid scaffolds with polyketides, alkaloids, phenols, and amino acids. This review deals with the isolation, chemical diversity, and biological effects of 452 new meroterpenoids reported from natural sources from January 2016 to December 2020. Most of the meroterpenoids possess antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, enzyme inhibitory, and immunosupressive effects.
    • Microfungi associated with Clematis (Ranunculaceae) with an integrated approach to delimiting species boundaries

      Phukhamsakda, Chayanard; McKenzie, Eric H. C.; Phillips, Alan J. L.; Gareth Jones, E. B.; Jayarama Bhat, D.; Stadler, Marc; Bhunjun, Chitrabhanu S.; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N.; Thongbai, Benjarong; Camporesi, Erio; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-07-07)
      The cosmopolitan plant genus Clematis contains many climbing species that can be found worldwide. The genus occurs in the wild and is grown commercially for horticulture. Microfungi on Clematis were collected from Belgium, China, Italy, Thailand and the UK. They are characterized by morphology and analyses of gene sequence data using an integrated species concept to validate identifications. The study revealed two new families, 12 new genera, 50 new species, 26 new host records with one dimorphic character report, and ten species are transferred to other genera. The new families revealed by multigene phylogeny are Longiostiolaceae and Pseudomassarinaceae in Pleosporales (Dothideomycetes). New genera are Anthodidymella (Didymellaceae), Anthosulcatispora and Parasulcatispora (Sulcatisporaceae), Fusiformispora (Amniculicolaceae), Longispora (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Neobyssosphaeria (Melanommataceae), Neoleptosporella (Chaetosphaeriales, genera incertae sedis), Neostictis (Stictidaceae), Pseudohelminthosporium (Neomassarinaceae), Pseudomassarina (Pseudomassarinaceae), Sclerenchymomyces (Leptosphaeriaceae) and Xenoplectosphaerella (Plectosphaerellaceae). The newly described species are Alloleptosphaeria clematidis, Anthodidymella ranunculacearum, Anthosulcatispora subglobosa, Aquadictyospora clematidis, Brunneofusispora clematidis, Chaetosphaeronema clematidicola, C. clematidis, Chromolaenicola clematidis, Diaporthe clematidina, Dictyocheirospora clematidis, Distoseptispora clematidis, Floricola clematidis, Fusiformispora clematidis, Hermatomyces clematidis, Leptospora clematidis, Longispora clematidis, Massariosphaeria clematidis, Melomastia clematidis, M. fulvicomae, Neobyssosphaeria clematidis, Neoleptosporella clematidis, Neoroussoella clematidis, N. fulvicomae, Neostictis nigricans, Neovaginatispora clematidis, Parasulcatispora clematidis, Parathyridaria clematidis, P. serratifoliae, P. virginianae, Periconia verrucose, Phomatospora uniseriata, Pleopunctum clematidis, Pseudocapulatispora clematidis, Pseudocoleophoma clematidis, Pseudohelminthosporium clematidis, Pseudolophiostoma chiangraiense, P. clematidis, Pseudomassarina clematidis, Ramusculicola clematidis, Sarocladium clematidis, Sclerenchymomyces clematidis, Sigarispora clematidicola, S. clematidis, S. montanae, Sordaria clematidis, Stemphylium clematidis, Wojnowiciella clematidis, Xenodidymella clematidis, Xenomassariosphaeria clematidis and Xenoplectosphaerella clematidis. The following fungi are recorded on Clematis species for the first time: Angustimassarina rosarum, Dendryphion europaeum, Dermatiopleospora mariae, Diaporthe ravennica, D. rudis, Dichotomopilus ramosissimum, Dictyocheirospora xishuangbannaensis, Didymosphaeria rubi-ulmifolii, Fitzroyomyces cyperacearum, Fusarium celtidicola, Leptospora thailandica, Memnoniella oblongispora, Neodidymelliopsis longicolla, Neoeutypella baoshanensis, Neoroussoella heveae, Nigrograna chromolaenae, N. obliqua, Pestalotiopsis verruculosa, Pseudoberkleasmium chiangmaiense, Pseudoophiobolus rosae, Pseudoroussoella chromolaenae, P. elaeicola, Ramusculicola thailandica, Stemphylium vesicarium and Torula chromolaenae. The new combinations are Anthodidymella clematidis (≡ Didymella clematidis), A. vitalbina (≡ Didymella vitalbina), Anthosulcatispora brunnea (≡ Neobambusicola brunnea), Fuscohypha kunmingensis (≡ Plectosphaerella kunmingensis), Magnibotryascoma rubriostiolata (≡ Teichospora rubriostiolata), Pararoussoella mangrovei (≡ Roussoella mangrovei), Pseudoneoconiothyrium euonymi (≡ Roussoella euonymi), Sclerenchymomyces jonesii (≡ Neoleptosphaeria jonesii), Stemphylium rosae (≡ Pleospora rosae), and S. rosae-caninae (≡ Pleospora rosae-caninae). The microfungi on Clematis is distributed in several classes of Ascomycota. The analyses are based on morphological examination of specimens, coupled with phylogenetic sequence data. To the best of our knowledge, the consolidated species concept approach is recommended in validating species.
    • A microfungus from Costa Rica: <I>Ticosynnema</I> gen. nov.

      Castañeda-Ruiz, Rafael F.; Granados, María M.; Mardones, Melissa; Stadler, Marc; Minter, David W.; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Gené, Josepa; Guarro, Josep (2014-06-10)
    • Mimonoside D: a new triterpenoid saponin from Sauvalle (Fabaceae).

      Kenmogne, Claudie Fokou; Ponou, Beaudelaire Kemvoufo; Kemkuignou, Blondelle Matio; Kühlborn, Jonas; Tchuenguem, Roland T; Teponno, Rémy Bertrand; Dzoyem, Jean Paul; Opatz, Till; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack; BRICS, Braunschweiger Zentrum für Systembiologie, Rebenring 56,38106 Braunschweig, Germany. (Taylor & Francis, 2021-11-29)
      A new triterpenoid saponin (Mimonoside D: 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-3β-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D- glucopyranoside ester (1)) was isolated from the aerial parts of Mimosa diplotricha Sauvalle together with nine known compounds: 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone (2), kaempferol (3), lupeol (4), betulinic acid (5), β-sitosterol (6), β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), lutein (8), 5,2'-dihydroxy-7,4',5'-trimethoxyflavone (9) and vitexin (10). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic (1 D and 2 D nuclear magnetic resonance) and high-resolution mass spectrometric data as well as by comparison of their spectral data with those of related compounds. Compounds 2, 7 and 8 had already been isolated from M. diplotricha, while compounds 3, 4, 5 and 6 have been isolated from other Mimosa species. Compound 2 moderately inhibited Proteus mirabilis (MIC = 32 µg/mL), weakly inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 64 µg/mL) and very weakly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 128 µg/mL) and Enterococus faecalis (MIC = 128 µg/mL).
    • Minimizing the chaos following the loss of Article 59: Suggestions for a discussion

      Gams, Walter; Humber, Richard A.; Jaklitsch, Walter; Kirschner, Roland; Stadler, Marc (2012-07-03)
    • Minutellins A - D, azaphilones from the stromata of Annulohypoxylon minutellum (Xylariaceae).

      Kuhnert, Eric; Surup, Frank; Halecker, Sandra; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-02-16)
      During the course of our screening for new metabolites with chemotaxonomic importance from stromata of fungi from the family Xylariaceae, we characterized several interesting metabolites in the fungus Annulohypoxylon minutellum. Extraction of the fruiting bodies and purification by preparative HPLC resulted in the isolation of five metabolites. The main compound was identified as the known metabolite hinnulin A (5), while four minor compounds were found to represent previously undescribed azaphilones, named minutellins A - D (1-4). Their planar structures were elucidated using NMR and HRESIMS data; absolute stereochemistry was assigned by CD data and Mosher's method. Compounds 1, 3 and 5 showed cytotoxic effects against murine and human cells. As the production of 1-5 is restricted to a group of closely related Annulohypoxylon species, they serve well as chemotaxonomic marker.
    • Modular synthesis of polyene side chain analogues of the potent macrolide antibiotic etnangien by a flexible coupling strategy based on hetero-bis-metallated alkenes.

      Altendorfer, Mario; Raja, Aruna; Sasse, Florenz; Irschik, Herbert; Menche, Dirk; University of Heidelberg, Department of Organic Chemistry, INF 270, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany, EU. (2013-04-07)
      An efficient procedure for the concise synthesis of hetero-bis-metallated alkenes as useful building blocks for the modular access to highly elaborate polyenes and stabilized analogues is reported. By applying these bifunctional olefins in convergent Stille/Suzuki-Miyaura couplings, novel, carefully selected side chain analogues of the potent RNA polymerase inhibitor etnangien were synthesized by a modular late stage coupling strategy and evaluated for antibacterial and antiproliferative activities.
    • Molecular Phylogeny and Morphology of (=Lepteutypa ) (Amphisphaeriaceae).

      Samarakoon, Milan C; Maharachchikumbura, Sajeewa S N; Liu, Jian-Kui Jack; Hyde, Kevin D; Promputtha, Itthayakorn; Stadler, Marc; HZI, Helmholtz Zentrum für Infektionsforschung, GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-09-17)
      Amphisphaeriaceous taxa (fungi) are saprobes on decaying wood in terrestrial, mangrove, and freshwater habitats. The generic boundaries of the family have traditionally been based on morphology, and the delimitation of genera has always been challenging. Amphisphaeria species have clypeate ascomata and 1-septate ascospores and a coelomycetous asexual morph. Lepteutypa is different from Amphisphaeria in having eutypoid stromata and more than 1-septate ascospores. These main characters have been used for segregation of Lepteutypa from Amphisphaeria for a long time. However, the above characters are overlapping among Amphisphaeria and Lepteutypa species. Therefore, here we synonymized Lepteutypa under Amphisphaeria based on holomorphic morphology and multigene phylogeny. Further, our cluster analysis reveals the relationship between seven morphological traits among Amphisphaeria/Lepteutypa species and suggests those morphologies are not specific to either genus. Three new species (i.e., Amphisphaeria camelliae, A. curvaticonidia, and A. micheliae) are introduced based on morphology and LSU-ITS-RPB2-TUB2 phylogenies. Furthermore, the monotypic genus Trochilispora, which had been accepted in Amphisphaeriaceae, is revisited and synonymized under Hymenopleella and placed in Sporocadaceae.
    • Monochlorinated calocerins A-D and 9-oxostrobilurin derivatives from the basidiomycete Favolaschia calocera.

      Chepkirui, Clara; Richter, Christian; Matasyoh, Josphat Clement; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Ihoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2016-12)
      Eight previously undescribed compounds were isolated and characterised from the supernatant and mycelium of a culture of the basidiomycete Favolaschia calocera originating from Kakamega equatorial rainforest in Kenya. These were: 9- oxostrobilurins A, G, K and I and the four monochlorinated calocerins A, B, C and D. The calocerins extend our knowledge of halogenated compounds obtained from natural sources. Four further known compounds were also identified: strobilurin G, favolon, pterulinic acid and 2,3 -dihydro-1-benzoxepin derivative. The four oxostrobilurins exhibited prominent antifungal and cytotoxic activities while the four calocerins only showed cytotoxic activity.
    • Monocillium gamsii sp. nov. and Monocillium bulbillosum: two nematode-associated fungi parasitising the eggs of Heterodera filipjevi

      Ashrafi, Samad; Stadler, Marc; Dababat, Abdelfattah A.; Richert-Pöggeler, Katja R.; Finckh, Maria R.; Maier, Wolfgang; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr.7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-10-25)
    • A "Motif-Oriented" Total Synthesis of Nannocystin Ax. Preparation and Biological Assessment of Analogues.

      Meng, Zhanchao; Souillart, Laetitia; Monks, Brendan; Huwyler, Nikolas; Herrmann, Jennifer; Müller, Rolf; Fürstner, Alois; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut füt Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2018-07-06)
      The highly cytotoxic cyclodepsipeptides of the nannocystin family are known to bind to the eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α). Analysis of the docking pose, as proposed by a previous in silico study, suggested that the trisubstituted alkene moiety and the neighboring methyl ether form a domain that might be closely correlated with biological activity. This hypothesis sponsored a synthetic campaign which was designed to be "motif-oriented": specifically, a sequence of ring closing alkyne metathesis (RCAM) followed by hydroxy-directed trans-hydrostannation of the resulting cycloalkyne was conceived, which allowed this potentially anchoring substructure to be systematically addressed at a late stage. This inherently flexible approach opened access to nannocystin Ax (1) itself as well as to 10 non-natural analogues. While the biological data confirmed the remarkable potency of this class of compounds and showed that the domain in question is indeed an innate part of the pharmacophore, the specific structure/activity relationships can only partly be reconciled with the original in silico docking study; therefore, we conclude that this model needs to be carefully revisited.
    • Multi-locus phylogeny of the genus Curvularia and description of ten new species

      Marin-Felix, Y.; Hernández-Restrepo, M.; Crous, P. W.; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer Nature, 2020-06-01)
      Curvularia is a cosmopolitan genus that includes species associated with plants, animals and humans, several of which are of clinical significance. Some of these species are important pathogens of grasses, causing devastating diseases on cereal crops in the family Poaceae. In the present multi-locus study, ex-type and reference strains of Curvularia, as well as several strains deposited in the CBS culture collection of the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, were included. Based on ITS, GAPDH and TEF1 sequences, as well as phenotypic data, ten new species are described and illustrated: C. arcana, C. austriaca, C. canadensis, C. ellisii, C. pseudoclavata, C. pseudoellisii, C. pseudointermedia, C. pseudoprotuberata, C. siddiquii and C. tribuli. Moreover, the new combinations C. cactivora and C. patereae are proposed, and an epitype for C. oryzae-sativae is designated. In addition, illustrations and descriptions are provided for C. cactivora, C. ellisii, C. crassiseptata, C. neergaardii, C. oryzae, C. oryzae-sativae, C. protuberata and C. verruciformis. The description of C. pseudobrachyspora is emended, and its host and distribution records are updated.
    • Multisystem combined uranium resistance mechanisms and bioremediation potential of Stenotrophomonas bentonitica BII-R7: Transcriptomics and microscopic study

      Pinel-Cabello, M.; Jroundi, F.; López-Fernández, M.; Geffers, R.; Jarek, M.; Jauregui, R.; Link, A.; Vílchez-Vargas, R.; Merroun, M. L.; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Elsevier, 2021-02-05)
      The potential use of microorganisms in the bioremediation of U pollution has been extensively described. However, a lack of knowledge on molecular resistance mechanisms has become a challenge for the use of these technologies. We reported on the transcriptomic and microscopic response of Stenotrophomonas bentonitica BII-R7 exposed to 100 and 250 μM of U. Results showed that exposure to 100 μM displayed up-regulation of 185 and 148 genes during the lag and exponential phases, respectively, whereas 143 and 194 were down-regulated, out of 3786 genes (>1.5-fold change). Exposure to 250 μM of U showed up-regulation of 68 genes and down-regulation of 290 during the lag phase. Genes involved in cell wall and membrane protein synthesis, efflux systems and phosphatases were up-regulated under all conditions tested. Microscopic observations evidenced the formation of U-phosphate minerals at membrane and extracellular levels. Thus, a biphasic process is likely to occur: the increased cell wall would promote the biosorption of U to the cell surface and its precipitation as U-phosphate minerals enhanced by phosphatases. Transport systems would prevent U accumulation in the cytoplasm. These findings contribute to an understanding of how microbes cope with U toxicity, thus allowing for the development of efficient bioremediation strategies.
    • Myxobacteria in high moor and fen: An astonishing diversity in a neglected extreme habitat.

      Mohr, Kathrin I; Zindler, Tanja; Wink, Joachim; Wilharm, Elke; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-08)
      Increasing antibiotic resistances of numerous pathogens mean that myxobacteria, well known producers of new antibiotics, are becoming more and more interesting. More than 100 secondary metabolites, most of them with bioactivity, were described from the order Myxococcales. Especially new myxobacterial genera and species turned out to be reliable sources for novel antibiotics and can be isolated from uncommon neglected habitats like, for example, acidic soils. Almost nothing is known about the diversity of myxobacteria in moors, except some information from cultivation studies of the 1970s. Therefore, we evaluated the myxobacterial community composition of acidic high moor and fen both with cultivation-independent 16S rRNA clone bank analysis and with cultivation. Phylogenetic analyses of clone sequences revealed a great potential of undescribed myxobacteria in high moor and fen, whereby all sequences represent unknown taxa and were detected exclusively by cultivation-independent analyses. However, many clones were assigned to sequences from other cultivation-independent studies of eubacterial diversity in acidic habitats. Cultivation revealed different strains exclusively from the genus Corallococcus. Our study shows that the neglected habitat moor is a promising source and of high interest with regard to the cultivation of prospective new bioactive secondary metabolite producing myxobacteria.
    • Natural products in drug discovery: advances and opportunities.

      Atanasov, Atanas G; Zotchev, Sergey B; Dirsch, Verena M; Supuran, Claudiu T; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany.; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Springer Nature, 2021-01-28)
      Natural products and their structural analogues have historically made a major contribution to pharmacotherapy, especially for cancer and infectious diseases. Nevertheless, natural products also present challenges for drug discovery, such as technical barriers to screening, isolation, characterization and optimization, which contributed to a decline in their pursuit by the pharmaceutical industry from the 1990s onwards. In recent years, several technological and scientific developments - including improved analytical tools, genome mining and engineering strategies, and microbial culturing advances - are addressing such challenges and opening up new opportunities. Consequently, interest in natural products as drug leads is being revitalized, particularly for tackling antimicrobial resistance. Here, we summarize recent technological developments that are enabling natural product-based drug discovery, highlight selected applications and discuss key opportunities.
    • New developments in mycological taxonomy and nomenclature and news about the future development of Mycological Progress.

      Stadler, Marc; Weber, Evi; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer Nature, 2021-03-27)
      [No abstract available]
    • A new genus Allodiatrype, five new species and a new host record of diatrypaceous fungi from palms (Arecaceae)

      Konta, S; et al.; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Mushroom Research Foundation, 2020-01-28)
      Diatrypaceous fungi on palms (Arecaceae) in Thailand were collected and identified based on morphological characteristics as well as combined DNA sequence analyses (ITS and TUB2). One new genus Allodiatrype, and five new species, Allocryptovalsa elaeidis, Allodiatrype arengae, A. elaeidicola, A. elaeidis and Diatrypella elaeidis are introduced. A checklist of Diatrypaceae occurring on palms (Arecaceae) and Thai diatrypaceous fungi is also provided.
    • New nematicidal and antimicrobial secondary metabolites from a new species in the new genus, .

      Rupcic, Zeljka; Chepkirui, Clara; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Crous, Pedro W; Luangsa-Ard, Janet Jennifer; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-01-01)
      During the course of a study on the functional biodiversity of the mycobiota inhabiting rainforests in Thailand, a fungal strain was isolated from a plant sample and shown to represent an undescribed species, as inferred from a combination of morphological and molecular phylogenetic methods. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on four DNA loci, revealed a phylogenetic tree with the newly generated sequences clustering in a separate branch, together with members of the Sulcatisporaceae (Pleosporales, Ascomycota). The Thai specimen morphologically resembled
    • New nematicidal and antimicrobial secondary metabolites from a new species in the new genus, .

      Rupcic, Zeljka; Chepkirui, Clara; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Crous, Pedro W; Luangsa-Ard, Janet Jennifer; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-01-01)
      During the course of a study on the functional biodiversity of the mycobiota inhabiting rainforests in Thailand, a fungal strain was isolated from a plant sample and shown to represent an undescribed species, as inferred from a combination of morphological and molecular phylogenetic methods. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on four DNA loci, revealed a phylogenetic tree with the newly generated sequences clustering in a separate branch, together with members of the Sulcatisporaceae (Pleosporales, Ascomycota). The Thai specimen morphologically resembled