• Observations on Texas hypoxylons, including two new Hypoxylon species and widespread environmental isolates of the H. croceum complex identified by a polyphasic approach

      Sir, Esteban B.; Becker, Kevin; Lambert, Christopher; Bills, Gerald F.; Kuhnert, Eric; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Taylor & Francis, 2019-01-01)
    • Occasional comment: Fungal identification to species-level can be challenging.

      Raja, Huzefa A; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Stadler, Marc; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Elsevier, 2021-07-14)
      [No abstract available]
    • One stop shop IV: taxonomic update with molecular phylogeny for important phytopathogenic genera: 76–100 (2020)

      Jayawardena, Ruvishika S.; Hyde, Kevin D.; Chen, Yi Jyun; Papp, Viktor; Palla, Balázs; Papp, Dávid; Bhunjun, Chitrabhanu S.; Hurdeal, Vedprakash G.; Senwanna, Chanokned; Manawasinghe, Ishara S.; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-09-24)
      This is a continuation of a series focused on providing a stable platform for the taxonomy of phytopathogenic fungi and fungus-like organisms. This paper focuses on one family: Erysiphaceae and 24 phytopathogenic genera: Armillaria, Barriopsis, Cercospora, Cladosporium, Clinoconidium, Colletotrichum, Cylindrocladiella, Dothidotthia,, Fomitopsis, Ganoderma, Golovinomyces, Heterobasidium, Meliola, Mucor, Neoerysiphe, Nothophoma, Phellinus, Phytophthora, Pseudoseptoria, Pythium, Rhizopus, Stemphylium, Thyrostroma and Wojnowiciella. Each genus is provided with a taxonomic background, distribution, hosts, disease symptoms, and updated backbone trees. Species confirmed with pathogenicity studies are denoted when data are available. Six of the genera are updated from previous entries as many new species have been described.
    • Opening and closing of the bacterial RNA polymerase clamp.

      Chakraborty, Anirban; Wang, Dongye; Ebright, Yon W; Korlann, You; Kortkhonjia, Ekaterine; Kim, Taiho; Chowdhury, Saikat; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh; Irschik, Herbert; Jansen, Rolf; et al. (2012-08-03)
      Using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we have defined bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) clamp conformation at each step in transcription initiation and elongation. We find that the clamp predominantly is open in free RNAP and early intermediates in transcription initiation but closes upon formation of a catalytically competent transcription initiation complex and remains closed during initial transcription and transcription elongation. We show that four RNAP inhibitors interfere with clamp opening. We propose that clamp opening allows DNA to be loaded into and unwound in the RNAP active-center cleft, that DNA loading and unwinding trigger clamp closure, and that clamp closure accounts for the high stability of initiation complexes and the high stability and processivity of elongation complexes.
    • Ophiocordyceps flavida sp. nov. (Ophiocordycipitaceae), a new species from Thailand associated with Pseudogibellula formicarum (Cordycipitaceae), and their bioactive secondary metabolites

      Mongkolsamrit, Suchada; Noisripoom, Wasana; Pumiputikul, Siraphop; Boonlarppradab, Chollaratt; Samson, Robert A.; Stadler, Marc; Becker, Kevin; Luangsa-Ard, Janet Jennifer; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer Nature, 2021-04-01)
      During a diversity study of entomopathogenic fungi in an agricultural ecosystem, two fungi were collected, isolated, and identified based on molecular phylogenetic analyses of three nuclear loci (LSU, TEF1, and RPB1) combined with morphological data. In this study, one novel species is described, Ophiocordyceps flavida, and a new record of Pseudogibellula formicarum for Thailand. Ophiocordyceps flavida morphologically resembles the Hirsutella anamorph of Ophiocordyceps pruinosa by having a mononematous character of the conidiophores and the same insect host (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Pseudogibellula formicarum is found to occur simultaneously with O. flavida, producing white conidiophores on the host. Additionally, secondary metabolites of both fungi were investigated and the major compound in O. flavida was identified as 2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-oxirane. Pseudogibellula formicarum from Ghana and Thailand produces 6-methoxy-1H-indole-3-carbonitrile as a main component. These compounds are known from chemical synthesis or as products of biotransformation, respectively. However, they were obtained in our study as genuine fungal metabolites for the first time and may even constitute chemotaxonomic markers for the respective species
    • Optimization of the biotechnological production of a novel class of anti-MRSA antibiotics from Chitinophaga sancti.

      Beckmann, Amelie; Hüttel, Stephan; Schmitt, Viktoria; Müller, Rolf; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-08-17)
      Recently, the discovery of the elansolids, a group of macrolides, was reported. The molecules show activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as well as other gram-positive organisms. This fact renders those substances a promising starting point for future chemical development. The active atropisomers A1/A2 are formed by macrolactonization of the biosynthesis product A3 but are prone to ring opening and subsequent formation of several unwanted side products. Recently it could be shown that addition of different nucleophiles to culture extracts of Chitinophaga sancti enable the formation of new stable elansolid derivatives. Furthermore, addition of such a nucleophile directly into the culture led exclusively to formation of a single active elansolid derivative. Due to low product yields, methods for production of gram amounts of these molecules have to be established to enable further development of this promising compound class.
    • Pentacyclic Triterpenoids, Phytosteroids and Fatty Acid Isolated from the Stem-bark of Cola lateritia K. Schum. (Sterculiaceae) of Cameroon origin; Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Activity

      Kamdem, Michael H.K.; Ojo, Olusesan; Kemkuignou, Blondelle M.; Talla, Rostan M.; Fonkui, Thierry Y.; Silihe, Kevine K.; Tata, Charlotte M.; Fotsing, Marthe C.D.; Mmutlane, Edwin M.; Ndinteh, Derek T. (Elsevier, 2022-01-01)
      The phytochemical investigation on the chemical constituents of dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) stem-bark extract ofCola lateritiaK. Schum. (Sterculiaceae) led to the isolationand characterization of five pentacyclic triterpenoids, one fatty acid and two phytosteroids. Thecompounds were identified as heptadecanoic acid (1), maslinic acid (2), betulinic acid (3), lupenone(4), lupeol (5), friedelin (6),b-stigmasterol (7) andß-sitosterol-3-O-ß-D-glucoside (8). Their struc-tures were determined by NMR analysis (1H,13C, DEPT-135, COSY, HMBC and HSQC), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) and comparisons with published data in the literature.This work, to the best of our knowledge, is the first isolation and identification of these compoundsin pure forms fromCola lateritia. Also, compounds1–3are reported for the first time fromColagenus.In vitroantibacterial activity of the isolated compounds (1–8) and the crude extract wereevaluated againstBacillus subtilis,Staphylococcus epidermidis,Enterococcus faecalis,Mycobacterium smegmatis,Staphylococcus aureus,Enterobacter cloacae,Klebsiella oxytoca,Proteusvulgaris,Klebsiella pneumonia,Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilisandKlebsiella aerogeneswithstreptomycin, nalidixic acid and ampicillin as standard antibacterial drugs. Compound2was activeagainstE. faecalis(MIC = 18.5mg/mL), and it was 6.9 and 28 times lower and active than that ofstreptomycin (MIC 128mg/mL) and nalidixic acid (MIC>512mg/mL) respectively. All the isolatedcompounds and crude extract showed significant activities against the tested bacterial strains.
    • A Phloem-Feeding Insect Transfers Bacterial Endophytic Communities between Grapevine Plants.

      Lòpez-Fernàndez, Sebastiàn; Mazzoni, Valerio; Pedrazzoli, Federico; Pertot, Ilaria; Campisano, Andrea; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr.7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017)
      Bacterial endophytes colonize the inner tissues of host plants through the roots or through discontinuities on the plant surface, including wounds and stomata. Little is known regarding a possible role of insects in acquiring and transmitting non-phytopathogenic microorganisms from plant to plant, especially those endophytes that are beneficial symbionts providing plant protection properties and homeostatic stability to the host. To understand the ecological role of insects in the transmission of endophytic bacteria, we used freshly hatched nymphs of the American sap-feeding leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus (vector) to transfer microorganisms across grapevine plants. After contact with the vector, sink plants were colonized by a complex endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highly similar to that present in source plants. A similar bacterial community, but with a higher ratio of Firmicutes, was found on S. titanus. Insects feeding only on sink plants transferred an entirely different bacterial community dominated by Actinobacteria, where Mycobacterium sp., played a major role. Despite the fact that insects dwelled mostly on plant stems, the bacterial communities in plant roots resembled more closely those inside and on insects, when compared to those of above-ground plant organs. We prove here the potential of insect vectors to transfer entire endophytic bacterial communities between plants. We also describe the role of plants and bacterial endophytes in establishing microbial communities in plant-feeding insects.
    • Phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic studies confirm the affinities of Stromatoneurospora phoenix to the Coprophilous xylariaceae

      Becker, Kevin; Wongkanoun, Sarunyou; Wessel, Anna Charleen; Bills, Gerald F.; Stadler, Marc; Luangsa-ard, J. Jennifer; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-09-01)
      The genus Stromatoneurospora was erected in 1973 by Jong and Davis to accommodate the pyrophilic pyrenomycete Sphaeria phoenix and has traditionally been placed in the family Xylariaceae based on morphological features. However, no living culture of this genus has so far been available in the public domain. Molecular data were restricted to an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence that only confirmed the familial position, and was generated from a strain that is not deposited in a public culture collection. We have recently collected fresh material and were able to culture this fungus from Thailand. The secondary metabolites of this strains were analysed after fermentation in multiple media. The the prominent components of these fermentation were purified, using preparative chromatography. Aside from two new eremophilane sesquiterpenoids named phoenixilanes A-B (1-2), four other components that are known from species of the xylariaceous genera Xylaria and Poronia were identified by spectral methods (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry). Notably, (-)-(R)-6-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-dihydroisocoumarin-5-carboxylic acid (6) has not been reported as a natural product before. Moreover, DNA sequences of Stromatoneurospora phoenix clustered with members of the genera Poronia and Podosordaria in a multi-locus molecular phylogeny. These results confirmed that the genus belongs to the same evolutionary lineage as the coprophilic Xylariaceae. The results also suggest that this lineage has evolved independently from the plant-inhabiting saprotrophs and endophytes that are closely related to the genus Xylaria. These findings are discussed in relation to some theories about the endophytic vs. the pyrophilic/coprophilic fungal life style.
    • Phylogenetic Assignment of the Fungicolous (Ascomycota, Xylariales) and Investigation of its Secondary Metabolites.

      Becker, Kevin; Lambert, Christopher; Wieschhaus, Jörg; Stadler, Marc; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-09-11)
      The ascomycete Hypoxylon invadens was described in 2014 as a fungicolous species growing on a member of its own genus, H.fragiforme, which is considered a rare lifestyle in the Hypoxylaceae. This renders H.invadens an interesting target in our efforts to find new bioactive secondary metabolites from members of the Xylariales. So far, only volatile organic compounds have been reported from H.invadens, but no investigation of non-volatile compounds had been conducted. Furthermore, a phylogenetic assignment following recent trends in fungal taxonomy via a multiple sequence alignment seemed practical. A culture of H.invadens was thus subjected to submerged cultivation to investigate the produced secondary metabolites, followed by isolation via preparative chromatography and subsequent structure elucidation by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). This approach led to the identification of the known flaviolin (1) and 3,3-biflaviolin (2) as the main components, which had never been reported from the order Xylariales before. Assessment of their antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects via a panel of commonly used microorganisms and cell lines in our laboratory did not yield any effects of relevance. Concurrently, genomic DNA from the fungus was used to construct a multigene phylogeny using ribosomal sequence information from the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), the 28S large subunit of ribosomal DNA (LSU), and proteinogenic nucleotide sequences from the second largest subunit of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (RPB2) and β-tubulin (TUB2) genes. A placement in a newly formed clade with H.trugodes was strongly supported in a maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogeny using sequences derived from well characterized strains, but the exact position of said clade remains unclear. Both, the chemical and the phylogenetic results suggest further inquiries into the lifestyle of this unique fungus to get a better understanding of both, its ecological role and function of its produced secondary metabolites hitherto unique to the Xylariales.
    • Phylogeny- and morphology-based recognition of new species in the spider-parasitic genus (Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae) from Thailand.

      Kuephadungphan, Wilawan; Tasanathai, Kanoksri; Petcharad, Booppa; Khonsanit, Artit; Stadler, Marc; Luangsa-Ard, J Jennifer; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (PenSoft publisher, 2020-09-02)
      Thailand is known to be a part of what is called the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, hosting a vast array of organisms across its diverse ecosystems. This is reflected by the increasing number of new species described over time, especially fungi. However, a very few fungal species from the specialized spider-parasitic genus Gibellula have ever been reported from this region. A survey of invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in Thailand over several decades has led to the discovery of a number of fungal specimens with affinities to this genus. Integration of morphological traits into multi-locus phylogenetic analysis uncovered four new species: G. cebrennini, G. fusiformispora, G. pigmentosinum, and G. scorpioides. All these appear to be exclusively linked with torrubiella-like sexual morphs with the presence of granulomanus-like asexual morph in G. pigmentosinum and G. cebrennini. A remarkably high host specificity of these new species towards their spider hosts was revealed, and for the first time, evidence is presented for manipulation of host behavior in G. scorpioides.
    • Pigmentosins from Gibellula sp. As antibiofilm agents and a new glycosylated asperfuran from Cordyceps javanica

      Helaly, Soleiman E.; Kuephadungphan, Wilawan; Phainuphong, Patima; Ibrahim, Mahmoud A.A.; Tasanathai, Kanoksri; Mongkolsamrit, Suchada; Luangsa-Ard, Janet Jennifer; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Stadler, Marc; et al. (Beilstein Institut, 2019-12-16)
      n the course of our exploration of the Thai invertebrate-pathogenic fungi for biologically active metabolites, pigmentosin A (1) and a new bis(naphtho-α-pyrone) derivative, pigmentosin B (2), were isolated from the spider-associated fungus Gibellula sp. Furthermore, a new glycosylated asperfuran 3, together with one new (6) and two known (4 and 5) cyclodepsipeptides, was isolated from Cordyceps javanica. The pigmentosins 1 and 2 showed to be active against biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus DSM1104. The lack of toxicity toward the studied microorganism and cell lines of pigmentosin B (2), as well as the antimicrobial effect of pigmentosin A (1), made them good candidates for further development for use in combination therapy of infections involving biofilm-forming S. aureus. The structure elucidation and determination of the absolute configuration were accomplished using a combination of spectroscopy, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, Mosher ester analysis, and comparison of calculated/experimental ECD spectra. A chemotaxonomic investigation of the secondary metabolite profiles using analytical HPLC coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–MS) revealed that the production of pigmentosin B (2) was apparently specific for Gibellula sp., while the glycoasperfuran 3 was specific for C. javanica.
    • The planctomycete Stieleria maiorica Mal15 employs stieleriacines to alter the species composition in marine biofilms.

      Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Jeske, Olga; Sandargo, Birthe; Boedeker, Christian; Wiegand, Sandra; Bartling, Pascal; Jogler, Mareike; Rohde, Manfred; Petersen, Jörn; Medema, Marnix H; et al. (Nature publishing group(NPG), 2020-06-12)
      Bacterial strains of the phylum Planctomycetes occur ubiquitously, but are often found on surfaces of aquatic phototrophs, e.g. alga. Despite slower growth, planctomycetes are not outcompeted by faster-growing bacteria in biofilms on such surfaces; however, strategies allowing them to compensate for slower growth have not yet been investigated. Here, we identified stieleriacines, a class of N-acylated tyrosines produced by the novel planctomycete Stieleria maiorica Mal15T, and analysed their effects on growth of the producing strain and bacterial species likely co-occurring with strain Mal15T. Stieleriacines reduced the lag phase of Mal15T and either stimulated or inhibited biofilm formation of two bacterial competitors, indicating that Mal15T employs stieleriacines to specifically alter microbial biofilm composition. The genetic organisation of the putative stieleriacine biosynthetic cluster in strain Mal15T points towards a functional link of stieleriacine biosynthesis to exopolysaccharide-associated protein sorting and biofilm formation.
    • Polyketide-Derived Secondary Metabolites from a Dothideomycetes Fungus, . et . ., (Muyocopronales) with Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities.

      Mapook, Ausana; Macabeo, Allan Patrick G; Thongbai, Benjarong; Hyde, Kevin D; Stadler, Marc; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-04-08)
      Pseudopalawania siamensisgen. et sp. nov., from northern Thailand, is introduced based on multi-gene analyses and morphological comparison. An isolate was fermented in yeast malt culture broth and explored for its secondary metabolite production. Chromatographic purification of the crude ethyl acetate (broth) extract yielded four tetrahydroxanthones comprised of a new heterodimeric bistetrahydroxanthone, pseudopalawanone (1), two known dimeric derivatives, 4,4'-secalonic acid D (2) and penicillixanthone A (3), the corresponding monomeric tetrahydroxanthone paecilin B (4), and the known benzophenone, cephalanone F (5). Compounds 1-3 showed potent inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Compounds 2 and 3 were inhibitory against Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 1.0 and 4.2 μg/mL, respectively. Only compound 2 showed activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. In addition, the dimeric compounds 1-3 also showed moderate cytotoxic effects on HeLa and mouse fibroblast cell lines, which makes them less attractive as candidates for development of selectively acting antibiotics.
    • A polyphasic taxonomy of Daldinia (Xylariaceae).

      Stadler, Marc; Læssøe, Thomas; Fournier, Jacques; Decock, Cony; Schmieschek, Beata; Tichy, Hans-Volker; Peršoh, Derek; Dept. Microbial Drugs, Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, D38124 Braunschweig, Germany (2014-03-15)
      For a monograph based on a polythetic concept, several thousands of herbarium specimens, and several hundreds of freshly collected and cultured specimens of Daldinia and allied Xylariaceae, originating from around the world, were studied for morphological traits, including by SEM, and chemically by HPLC profiles using UV-visible and mass spectrometric detection. Emphasis was given to tropical material, and importantly, ancient specimens, including as many types as possible, were tracked and studied to review earlier taxonomic concepts. An epitype of D. eschscholtzii was selected as representative of the morphochemotype that is most widely distributed in the tropics. Six new species of Daldinia from the tropics and the southern Hemisphere are described. Daldinia asphalatum is resurrected, and D. cudonia is regarded as its synonym. In addition, the following binomials are epi-, iso-, neo- and/or lectotypified: Daldinia asphalatum, D. caldariorum, D. clavata, D. cuprea, D. durissima, D. eschscholtzii, D. grandis, D. loculata, and D. vernicosa. Annellosporium and Versiomyces are regarded as synonyms of Daldinia. Many new synonymies in Daldinia are proposed, and some previously published names are rejected. In total, 47 taxa in Daldinia are recognised and a key is provided. Their biogeography, chorology, and ecology, as well as the importance of their secondary metabolites, are also discussed. The previous definition of the genus is emended. The species concept is based mainly on morphological and other phenotype-derived characters because, despite diligent search, no molecular data or cultures of several of the accepted species could be obtained. Daldinia is segregated into five major groups, based on phenotypic characteristics. Some unnamed but aberrant specimens were not found in good condition and are therefore not formally described as new species. However, they are illustrated in detail in a hope that this will facilitate the discovery of fresh material in future. A preliminary molecular phylogeny based on 5.8S/ITS nrDNA including numerous representatives of all hitherto described taxa for which cultures are extant, was found basically in agreement with the above mentioned segregation of the genus, based on morphological and chemotaxonomic evidence. In the rDNA based phylogenetic tree, Daldinia appears clearly distinct from members of the genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon; nevertheless, representatives of small genera of predominantly tropical origin (Entonaema, Phylacia, Ruwenzoria, Rhopalostroma, Thamnomyces) appear to have evolved from daldinioid ancestors and are nested inside the Daldinia clade. Interestingly, these findings correlate with chemotaxonomic characters to a great extent, especially regarding the distribution of marker metabolites in their mycelial cultures. Hence, the current study revealed for the first time that fungal secondary metabolite profiles can have taxonomic value beyond the species rank and even coincide with phylogenetic data.
    • Production of Obionin A and Derivatives by the Sooty Blotch Fungus Microcyclospora malicola.

      Surup, Frank; Medjedović, Ajda; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig. (2015-10)
      A multitude of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi, mainly belonging to the Ascomycetes order Capnodiales, causes dark blemishes and flyspeck-like spots on apples worldwide. Different sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi can coexist in the same orchard and even on a single fruit. Our preceding experiments revealed an activity of Microcyclospora malicola strain 1930 against the anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum fioriniae in dual culture assays. Extracts of M. malicola strain 1930 showed a broad bioactivity against filamentous fungus Mucor hiemalis and gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. A bioactivity-guided isolation led to the identification of obionin A (1) as the main active principle. In addition to 1, which was previously isolated from the marine fungus Leptosphaeria obiones, we isolated three derivatives. Metabolite 2 bears a keto function at C-6, besides the replacement of oxygen by nitrogen at position 10. Two more derivatives are adducts (3, 4) of acetone as work-up artifacts. Because obionin A (1) and its derivative 2 showed cytotoxic effects and antifungal activities, we propose a role of these secondary metabolites in the antagonism between M. malicola and other apple colonizing sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi, other epiphytes, or apple pathogens competing for the same ecological niche.
    • Re-Evaluation of the Order Sordariales: Delimitation of Lasiosphaeriaceae s. str., and Introduction of the New Families Diplogelasinosporaceae, Naviculisporaceae, and Schizotheciaceae.

      Marin-Felix, Yasmina; Miller, Andrew N; Cano-Lira, José F; Guarro, Josep; García, D; Stadler, Marc; Huhndorf, Sabine M; Stchigel, Alberto M; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-09-17)
      The order Sordariales includes the polyphyletic family Lasiosphaeriaceae, which comprises approximately 30 genera characterized by its paraphysate ascomata, asci with apical apparati, and mostly two-celled ascospores, which have a dark apical cell and a hyaline lower cell, frequently ornamented with mucilaginous appendages[...].
    • Recent progress in biodiversity research on the Xylariales and their secondary metabolism.

      Becker, Kevin; Stadler, Marc; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer Nature, 2020-10-23)
      The families Xylariaceae and Hypoxylaceae (Xylariales, Ascomycota) represent one of the most prolific lineages of secondary metabolite producers. Like many other fungal taxa, they exhibit their highest diversity in the tropics. The stromata as well as the mycelial cultures of these fungi (the latter of which are frequently being isolated as endophytes of seed plants) have given rise to the discovery of many unprecedented secondary metabolites. Some of those served as lead compounds for development of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. Recently, the endophytic Xylariales have also come in the focus of biological control, since some of their species show strong antagonistic effects against fungal and other pathogens. New compounds, including volatiles as well as nonvolatiles, are steadily being discovered from these ascomycetes, and polythetic taxonomy now allows for elucidation of the life cycle of the endophytes for the first time. Moreover, recently high-quality genome sequences of some strains have become available, which facilitates phylogenomic studies as well as the elucidation of the biosynthetic gene clusters (BGC) as a starting point for synthetic biotechnology approaches. In this review, we summarize recent findings, focusing on the publications of the past 3 years.
    • Refined families of Sordariomycetes

      Hyde, KD; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Mushroom Research Foundation, 2020-03-31)
      This is a continuation of the papers “Towards a classification of Sordariomycetes” (2015) and “Families of Sordariomycetes” (2016) in which we compile a treatment of the class Sordariomycetes. The present treatment is needed as our knowledge has rapidly increased, from 32 orders, 105 families and 1331 genera in 2016, to 45 orders, 167 families and 1499 genera (with 308 genera incertae sedis) at the time of publication. In this treatment we provide notes on each order, families and short notes on each genus. We provide up-to-date DNA based phylogenies for 45 orders and 163 families. Three new genera and 16 new species are introduced with illustrations and descriptions, while 23 new records and three new species combinations are provided. We also list 308 taxa in Sordariomycetes genera incertae sedis. For each family we provide general descriptions and illustrate the type genus or another genus, the latter where the placement has generally been confirmed with molecular data. Both the sexual and asexual morphs representative of a family are illustrated where available. Notes on ecological and economic considerations are also given.
    • Resolution of the Hypoxylon fuscum complex (hypoxylaceae, xylariales) and discovery and biological characterization of two of its prominent secondary metabolites.

      Lambert, Christopher; Pourmoghaddam, Mohammad Javad; Cedeño-Sanchez, Marjorie; Surup, Frank; Khodaparast, Seyed Akbar; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Voglmayr, Hermann; Stradal, Theresia E B; Stadler, Marc; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2021-02-11)
      Hypoxylon, a large, cosmopolitan genus of Ascomycota is in the focus of our current poly-thetic taxonomic studies, and served as an excellent source for bioactive secondary metabolites at the same time. The present work concerns a survey of the Hypoxylon fuscum species complex based on specimens from Iran and Europe by morphological studies and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and diode array detection (HPLC-MS-DAD). Apart from known chemotaxonomic markers like binaphthalene tetrol (BNT) and daldinin F, two unprece-dented molecules were detected and subsequently isolated to purity by semi preparative HPLC. Their structures were established by nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as 3'-malonyl-daldinin F (6) and pseudofuscochalasin A (4). The new daldinin derivative 6 showed weak cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells but bactericidal activity. The new cytochalasin 4 was compared to cytochalasin C in an actin disruption assay using fluorescence microscopy of human osteo-sarcoma U2OS cells, revealing comparable activity towards F-actin but being irreversible compared to cytochalasin C. Concurrently, a multilocus molecular phylogeny based on ribosomal and proteinogenic nucleotide sequences of Hypoxylon species resulted in a well-supported clade for H. fuscum and its allies. From a comparison of morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic evidence, we introduce the new species H. eurasiaticum and H. pseudofuscum.