• Complete Genome Sequencing Leptospira interrogans Isolates from Malaysia Reveals Massive Genome Rearrangement but High Conservation of Virulence-Associated Genes

      Ramli, Siti Roszilawati; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Bhuju, Sabin; Goris, Marga; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Pessler, Frank; HIRI, Helmholtz-Institut für RNA-basierte Infektionsforschung, Josef-Shneider Strasse 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany. (PLOS, 2021-09-15)
      The ability of Leptospirae to persist in environments and animal hosts but to cause clinically highly variable disease in humans has made leptospirosis the most common zoonotic disease. Considering the paucity of data on variation in complete genomes of human pathogenic Leptospirae, we have used a combination of Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) and Illumina sequencing to obtain complete genome sequences of six human clinical L. interrogans isolates from Malaysia. All six contained the larger (4.28-4.56 Mb) and smaller (0.34-0.395 Mb) chromosome typical of human pathogenic Leptospirae and 0-7 plasmids. Only 24% of the plasmid sequences could be matched to databases. We identified a chromosomal core genome of 3318 coding sequences and strain-specific accessory genomes of 49-179 coding sequences. These sequences enabled detailed genomic strain typing (Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny, DNA-DNA hybridization, and multi locus sequence typing) and phylogenetic classification (whole-genome SNP genotyping). Even though there was some shared synteny and collinearity across the six genomes, there was evidence of major genome rearrangement, likely driven by horizontal gene transfer and homologous recombination. Mobile genetic elements were identified in all strains in highly varying numbers, including in the rfb locus, which defines serogroups and contributes to immune escape and pathogenesis. On the other hand, there was high conservation of virulence-associated genes including those relating to sialic acid, alginate, and lipid A biosynthesis. These findings suggest (i) that the antigenic variation, adaption to various host environments, and broad spectrum of virulence of L. interrogans are in part due to a high degree of genomic plasticity and (ii) that human pathogenic strains maintain a core set of genes required for virulence.
    • Dysregulated Immunometabolism Is Associated with the Generation of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Staphylococcus aureus Chronic Infection.

      Dietrich, Oliver; Heinz, Alexander; Goldmann, Oliver; Geffers, Robert; Beineke, Andreas; Hiller, Karsten; Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Medina, Eva; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Karger, 2021-11-11)
      Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a compendium of immature myeloid cells that exhibit potent T-cell suppressive capacity and expand during pathological conditions such as cancer and chronic infections. Although well-characterized in cancer, the physiology of MDSCs in the infection setting remains enigmatic. Here, we integrated single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and functional metabolic profiling to gain deeper insights into the factors governing the generation and maintenance of MDSCs in chronic Staphylococcus aureus infection. We found that MDSCs originate not only in the bone marrow but also at extramedullary sites in S. aureus-infected mice. scRNA-seq showed that infection-driven MDSCs encompass a spectrum of myeloid precursors in different stages of differentiation, ranging from promyelocytes to mature neutrophils. Furthermore, the scRNA-seq analysis has also uncovered valuable phenotypic markers to distinguish mature myeloid cells from immature MDSCs. Metabolic profiling indicates that MDSCs exhibit high glycolytic activity and high glucose consumption rates, which are required for undergoing terminal maturation. However, rapid glucose consumption by MDSCs added to infection-induced perturbations in the glucose supplies in infected mice hinders the terminal maturation of MDSCs and promotes their accumulation in an immature stage. In a proof-of-concept in vivo experiment, we demonstrate the beneficial effect of increasing glucose availability in promoting MDSC terminal differentiation in infected mice. Our results provide valuable information of how metabolic alterations induced by infection influence reprogramming and differentiation of MDSCs.
    • Impact of healthy aging on active bacterial assemblages throughout the gastrointestinal tract.

      Schütte, Kerstin; Schulz, Christian; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Palm, Frederike; Simon, Bianca; Schomburg, Dirk; Lux, Anke; Geffers, Robert; Pieper, Dietmar H; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2021-08-30)
      The adaption of gut microbiota (GM) throughout human life is a key factor in maintaining health. Interventions to restore a healthy GM composition may have the potential to improve health and disease outcomes in the elderly. We performed a comprehensive characterization of changes in the luminal and mucosa-associated microbiota composition in elderly compared with younger healthy individuals. Samples from saliva and feces, and biopsies from the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract (UGIT, LGIT), were collected from 59 asymptomatic individuals grouped by age: 40-55, 56-70, and 71-85 years). All underwent anthropometric, geriatric, and nutritional assessment. RNA was extracted and reverse-transcribed into complementary DNA; the V1-V2 regions of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified and sequenced. Abundances of the taxa in all taxonomic ranks in each sample type were used to construct sample-similarity matrices by the Bray-Curtis algorithm. Significant differences between defined groups were assessed by analysis of similarity. The bacterial community showed strong interindividual variations and a clear distinction between samples from UGIT, LGIT, and feces. While in saliva some taxa were affected by aging, this number was considerably greater in UGIT and was subsequently higher in LGIT. Unexpectedly, aging scarcely influenced the bacterial community of feces over the age range of 40-85 years. The development of interventions to preserve and restore human health with increased age by establishing a healthy gut microbiome should not rely solely on data from fecal analysis, as the intestinal mucosa is affected by more significant changes, which differ from those observed in fecal analyses.
    • Severe COVID-19 Is Marked by a Dysregulated Myeloid Cell Compartment.

      Schulte-Schrepping, Jonas; Reusch, Nico; Paclik, Daniela; Baßler, Kevin; Schlickeiser, Stephan; Zhang, Bowen; Krämer, Benjamin; Krammer, Tobias; Brumhard, Sophia; Bonaguro, Lorenzo; et al. (Elsevier /Cell Press), 2020-08-05)
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild to moderate respiratory tract infection, however, a subset of patients progress to severe disease and respiratory failure. The mechanism of protective immunity in mild forms and the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 associated with increased neutrophil counts and dysregulated immune responses remain unclear. In a dual-center, two-cohort study, we combined single-cell RNA-sequencing and single-cell proteomics of whole-blood and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to determine changes in immune cell composition and activation in mild versus severe COVID-19 (242 samples from 109 individuals) over time. HLA-DRhiCD11chi inflammatory monocytes with an interferon-stimulated gene signature were elevated in mild COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 was marked by occurrence of neutrophil precursors, as evidence of emergency myelopoiesis, dysfunctional mature neutrophils, and HLA-DRlo monocytes. Our study provides detailed insights into the systemic immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals profound alterations in the myeloid cell compartment associated with severe COVID-19.