• Concentration and composition dependent aggregation of Pluronic- and Poly-(2-oxazolin)-Efavirenz formulations in biorelevant media.

      Endres, Sebastian; Karaev, Emil; Hanio, Simon; Schlauersbach, Jonas; Kraft, Christian; Rasmussen, Tim; Luxenhofer, Robert; Böttcher, Bettina; Meinel, Lorenz; Pöppler, Ann-Christin; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-08-10)
      Many drugs and drug candidates are poorly water-soluble. Intestinal fluids play an important role in their solubilization. However, the interactions of intestinal fluids with polymer excipients, drugs and their formulations are not fully understood. Here, diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), complemented by cryo-TEM were employed to address this. Efavirenz (EFV) as model drug, the triblock copolymers Pluronic® F-127 (PF127) and poly(2-oxazoline) based pMeOx-b-pPrOzi-b-pMeOx (pOx/pOzi) and their respective formulations were studied in simulated fed-state intestinal fluid (FeSSIF). For the individual polymers, the bile interfering nature of PF127 was confirmed and pure pOx/pOzi was newly classified as non-interfering. A different and more complex behaviour was however observed if EFV was involved. PF127/EFV formulations in FeSSIF showed concentration dependent aggregation with separate colloids at low formulation concentrations, a merging of individual particles at the solubility limit of EFV in FeSSIF and joint aggregates above this concentration. In the case of pOx/pOzi/EFV formulations, coincident diffusion coefficients for pOx/pOzi, lipids and EFV indicate joint aggregates across the studied concentration range. This demonstrates that separate evaluation of polymers and drugs in biorelevant media is not sufficient and their mixtures need to be studied to learn about concentration and composition dependent behaviour.
    • Drug-Induced Dynamics of Bile Colloids.

      Hanio, Simon; Schlauersbach, Jonas; Lenz, Bettina; Spiegel, Franziska; Böckmann, Rainer A; Schweins, Ralf; Nischang, Ivo; Schubert, Ulrich S; Endres, Sebastian; Pöppler, Ann-Christin; et al. (American Society for Chemistry (ACS), 2021-02-15)
      Bile colloids containing taurocholate and lecithin are essential for the solubilization of hydrophobic molecules including poorly water-soluble drugs such as Perphenazine. We detail the impact of Perphenazine concentrations on taurocholate/lecithin colloids using analytical ultracentrifugation, dynamic light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Perphenazine impacted colloidal molecular arrangement, structure, and binding thermodynamics in a concentration-dependent manner. At low concentration, Perphenazine was integrated into stable and large taurocholate/lecithin colloids and close to lecithin. Integration of Perphenazine into these colloids was exothermic. At higher Perphenazine concentration, the taurocholate/lecithin colloids had an approximately 5-fold reduction in apparent hydrodynamic size, heat release was less exothermic upon drug integration into the colloids, and Perphenazine interacted with both lecithin and taurocholate. In addition, Perphenazine induced a morphological transition from vesicles to wormlike micelles as indicated by neutron scattering. Despite these surprising colloidal dynamics, these natural colloids successfully ensured stable relative amounts of free Perphenazine throughout the entire drug concentration range tested here. Future studies are required to further detail these findings both on a molecular structural basis and in terms of in vivo relevance.
    • Leveraging bile solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs by rational polymer selection.

      Schlauersbach, Jonas; Hanio, Simon; Lenz, Bettina; Vemulapalli, Sahithya P B; Griesinger, Christian; Pöppler, Ann-Christin; Harlacher, Cornelius; Galli, Bruno; Meinel, Lorenz; HIRI, Helmholtz-Institut für RNA-basierte Infektionsforschung, Josef-Shneider Strasse 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany. (Elsevier, 2020-12-15)
      Poorly water-soluble drugs frequently solubilize into bile colloids and this natural mechanism is key for efficient bioavailability. We tested the impact of pharmaceutical polymers on this solubilization interplay using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and by assessing the flux across model membranes. Eudragit E, Soluplus, and a therapeutically used model polymer, Colesevelam, impacted the bile-colloidal geometry and molecular interaction. These polymer-induced changes reduced the flux of poorly water-soluble and bile interacting drugs (Perphenazine, Imatinib) but did not impact the flux of bile non-interacting Metoprolol. Non-bile interacting polymers (Kollidon VA 64, HPMC-AS) neither impacted the flux of colloid-interacting nor colloid-non-interacting drugs. These insights into the drug substance/polymer/bile colloid interplay potentially point towards a practical optimization parameter steering formulations to efficient bile-solubilization by rational polymer selection.