• A high-resolution transcriptome map identifies small RNA regulation of metabolism in the gut microbe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

      Ryan, Daniel; Jenniches, Laura; Reichardt, Sarah; Barquist, Lars; Westermann, Alexander J; HIRI, Helmholtz-Institut für RNA-basierte Infektionsforschung, Josef-Shneider Strasse 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany. (NPG, 2020-07-16)
      Bacteria of the genus Bacteroides are common members of the human intestinal microbiota and important degraders of polysaccharides in the gut. Among them, the species Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron has emerged as the model organism for functional microbiota research. Here, we use differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) to generate a single-nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of B. thetaiotaomicron grown under defined laboratory conditions. An online browser, called 'Theta-Base' ( www.helmholtz-hiri.de/en/datasets/bacteroides ), is launched to interrogate the obtained gene expression data and annotations of ~4500 transcription start sites, untranslated regions, operon structures, and 269 noncoding RNA elements. Among the latter is GibS, a conserved, 145 nt-long small RNA that is highly expressed in the presence of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine as sole carbon source. We use computational predictions and experimental data to determine the secondary structure of GibS and identify its target genes. Our results indicate that sensing of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine induces GibS expression, which in turn modifies the transcript levels of metabolic enzymes.
    • An RNA-centric global view of Clostridioides difficile reveals broad activity of Hfq in a clinically important gram-positive bacterium.

      Fuchs, Manuela; Lamm-Schmidt, Vanessa; Sulzer, Johannes; Ponath, Falk; Jenniches, Laura; Kirk, Joseph A; Fagan, Robert P; Barquist, Lars; Vogel, Jörg; Faber, Franziska; et al. (National Academy of Sciences, 2021-06-15)
      The gram-positive human pathogen Clostridioides difficile has emerged as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, little is known about the bacterium's transcriptome architecture and mechanisms of posttranscriptional control. Here, we have applied transcription start site and termination mapping to generate a single-nucleotide-resolution RNA map of C. difficile 5' and 3' untranslated regions, operon structures, and noncoding regulators, including 42 sRNAs. Our results indicate functionality of many conserved riboswitches and predict cis-regulatory RNA elements upstream of multidrug resistance (MDR)-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and transcriptional regulators. Despite growing evidence for a role of Hfq in RNA-based gene regulation in C. difficile, the functions of Hfq-based posttranscriptional regulatory networks in gram-positive pathogens remain controversial. Using Hfq immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing of bound RNA species (RIP-seq), we identify a large cohort of transcripts bound by Hfq and show that absence of Hfq affects transcript stabilities and steady-state levels. We demonstrate sRNA expression during intestinal colonization by C. difficile and identify infection-related signals impacting its expression. As a proof of concept, we show that the utilization of the abundant intestinal metabolite ethanolamine is regulated by the Hfq-dependent sRNA CDIF630nc_085. Overall, our study lays the foundation for understanding clostridial riboregulation with implications for the infection process and provides evidence for a global role of Hfq in posttranscriptional regulation in a gram-positive bacterium.
    • Single-Nucleotide RNA Maps for the Two Major Nosocomial Pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium

      Michaux, Charlotte; Hansen, Elisabeth E; Jenniches, Laura; Gerovac, Milan; Barquist, Lars; Vogel, Jörg; HIRI, Helmholtz-Institut für RNA-basierte Infektionsforschung, Josef-Shneider Strasse 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany. (Frontiers, 2020-11-25)
      Enterococcus faecalis and faecium are two major representative clinical strains of the Enterococcus genus and are sadly notorious to be part of the top agents responsible for nosocomial infections. Despite their critical implication in worldwide public healthcare, essential and available resources such as deep transcriptome annotations remain poor, which also limits our understanding of post-transcriptional control small regulatory RNA (sRNA) functions in these bacteria. Here, using the dRNA-seq technique in combination with ANNOgesic analysis, we successfully mapped and annotated transcription start sites (TSS) of both E. faecalis V583 and E. faecium AUS0004 at single nucleotide resolution. Analyzing bacteria in late exponential phase, we capture ~40% (E. faecalis) and 43% (E. faecium) of the annotated protein-coding genes, determine 5' and 3' UTR (untranslated region) length, and detect instances of leaderless mRNAs. The transcriptome maps revealed sRNA candidates in both bacteria, some found in previous studies and new ones. Expression of candidate sRNAs is being confirmed under biologically relevant environmental conditions. This comprehensive global TSS mapping atlas provides a valuable resource for RNA biology and gene expression analysis in the Enterococci. It can be accessed online at www.helmholtz-hiri.de/en/datasets/enterococcus through an instance of the genomic viewer JBrowse.