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dc.contributor.authorRenault, Thibaud T
dc.contributor.authorAbraham, Anthony O
dc.contributor.authorBergmiller, Tobias
dc.contributor.authorParadis, Guillaume
dc.contributor.authorRainville, Simon
dc.contributor.authorCharpentier, Emmanuelle
dc.contributor.authorGuet, Călin C
dc.contributor.authorTu, Yuhai
dc.contributor.authorNamba, Keiichi
dc.contributor.authorKeener, James P
dc.contributor.authorMinamino, Tohru
dc.contributor.authorErhardt, Marc
dc.date.accessioned2017-08-16T13:12:35Z
dc.date.available2017-08-16T13:12:35Z
dc.date.issued2017-03-06
dc.identifier.citationBacterial flagella grow through an injection-diffusion mechanism. 2017, 6 Elifeen
dc.identifier.issn2050-084X
dc.identifier.pmid28262091
dc.identifier.doi10.7554/eLife.23136
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10033/621058
dc.description.abstractThe bacterial flagellum is a self-assembling nanomachine. The external flagellar filament, several times longer than a bacterial cell body, is made of a few tens of thousands subunits of a single protein: flagellin. A fundamental problem concerns the molecular mechanism of how the flagellum grows outside the cell, where no discernible energy source is available. Here, we monitored the dynamic assembly of individual flagella using in situ labelling and real-time immunostaining of elongating flagellar filaments. We report that the rate of flagellum growth, initially ∼1,700 amino acids per second, decreases with length and that the previously proposed chain mechanism does not contribute to the filament elongation dynamics. Inhibition of the proton motive force-dependent export apparatus revealed a major contribution of substrate injection in driving filament elongation. The combination of experimental and mathematical evidence demonstrates that a simple, injection-diffusion mechanism controls bacterial flagella growth outside the cell.
dc.language.isoenen
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/*
dc.titleBacterial flagella grow through an injection-diffusion mechanism.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.journaleLifeen
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-13T01:10:46Z
html.description.abstractThe bacterial flagellum is a self-assembling nanomachine. The external flagellar filament, several times longer than a bacterial cell body, is made of a few tens of thousands subunits of a single protein: flagellin. A fundamental problem concerns the molecular mechanism of how the flagellum grows outside the cell, where no discernible energy source is available. Here, we monitored the dynamic assembly of individual flagella using in situ labelling and real-time immunostaining of elongating flagellar filaments. We report that the rate of flagellum growth, initially ∼1,700 amino acids per second, decreases with length and that the previously proposed chain mechanism does not contribute to the filament elongation dynamics. Inhibition of the proton motive force-dependent export apparatus revealed a major contribution of substrate injection in driving filament elongation. The combination of experimental and mathematical evidence demonstrates that a simple, injection-diffusion mechanism controls bacterial flagella growth outside the cell.


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