• Microbiota Alters Urinary Bladder Weight and Gene Expression.

      Roje, Blanka; Elek, Anamaria; Palada, Vinko; Bom, Joana; Iljazović, Aida; Šimić, Ana; Sušak, Lana; Vilović, Katarina; Strowig, Till; Vlahoviček, Kristian; et al. (MDPI, 2020-03-17)
      We studied the effect of microbiota on the transcriptome and weight of the urinary bladder by comparing germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) housed mice. In total, 97 genes were differently expressed (fold change > ±2; false discovery rate (FDR) p-value < 0.01) between the groups, including genes regulating circadian rhythm (Per1, Per2 and Per3), extracellular matrix (Spo1, Spon2), and neuromuscular synaptic transmission (Slc18a3, Slc5a7, Chrnb4, Chrna3, Snap25). The highest increase in expression was observed for immunoglobulin genes (Igkv1-122, Igkv4-68) of unknown function, but surprisingly the absence of microbiota did not change the expression of the genes responsible for recognizing microbes and their products. We found that urinary bladder weight was approximately 25% lighter in GF mice (p = 0.09 for males, p = 0.005 for females) and in mice treated with broad spectrum of antibiotics (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, our data indicate that microbiota is an important determinant of urinary bladder physiology controlling its gene expression and size.