• Exogenous and Endogenous Triggers Differentially Stimulate Pigr Expression and Antibacterial Secretory Immunity in the Murine Respiratory Tract.

      Pausder, Alexander; Fricke, Jennifer; Schughart, Klaus; Schreiber, Jens; Strowig, Till; Bruder, Dunja; Boehme, Julia; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer, 2021-11-26)
      Purpose: Transport of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) through the airway epithelial cell barrier into the mucosal lumen by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) is an important mechanism of respiratory mucosal host defense. Identification of immunomodulating substances that regulate secretory immunity might have therapeutic implications with regard to an improved immune exclusion. Thus, we sought to analyze secretory immunity under homeostatic and immunomodulating conditions in different compartments of the murine upper and lower respiratory tract (URT&LRT). Methods: Pigr gene expression in lung, trachea, and nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) of germ-free mice, specific pathogen-free mice, mice with an undefined microbiome, as well as LPS- and IFN-γ-treated mice was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. IgA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), nasal lavage (NAL), and serum were determined by ELISA. LPS- and IFN-γ-treated mice were colonized with Streptococcus pneumoniae and bacterial CFUs were determined in URT and LRT. Results: Respiratory Pigr expression and IgA levels were dependent on the degree of exposure to environmental microbial stimuli. While immunostimulation with LPS and IFN-γ differentially impacts respiratory Pigr expression and IgA in URT vs. LRT, only prophylactic IFN-γ treatment reduces nasal colonization with S. pneumoniae. Conclusion: Airway-associated secretory immunity can be partly modulated by exposure to microbial ligands and proinflammatory stimuli. Prophylactic IFN-γ-treatment modestly improves antibacterial immunity in the URT, but this does not appear to be mediated by SIgA or pIgR.
    • A versatile genetic toolbox for Prevotella copri enables studying polysaccharide utilization systems.

      Li, Jing; Gálvez, Eric J C; Amend, Lena; Almási, Éva; Iljazovic, Aida; Lesker, Till R; Bielecka, Agata A; Schorr, Eva-Magdalena; Strowig, Till; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (EMBO Press, 2021-10-21)
      Prevotella copri is a prevalent inhabitant of the human gut and has been associated with plant-rich diet consumption and diverse health states. The underlying genetic basis of these associations remains enigmatic due to the lack of genetic tools. Here, we developed a novel versatile genetic toolbox for rapid and efficient genetic insertion and allelic exchange applicable to P. copri strains from multiple clades. Enabled by the genetic platform, we systematically investigated the specificity of polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) and identified four highly conserved PULs for utilizing arabinan, pectic galactan, arabinoxylan, and inulin, respectively. Further genetic and functional analysis of arabinan utilization systems illustrate that P. copri has evolved two distinct types of arabinan-processing PULs (PULAra ) and that the type-II PULAra is significantly enriched in individuals consuming a vegan diet compared to other diets. In summary, this genetic toolbox will enable functional genetic studies for P. copri in future.
    • Induction of IL-22-Producing CD4+ T Cells by Segmented Filamentous Bacteria Independent of Classical Th17 Cells.

      Roy, Urmi; de Oliveira, Rômulo S; Galvez, Eric J C; Gronow, Achim; Basic, Marijana; Perez, Laura Garcia; Gagliani, Nicola; Bleich, Andre; Huber, Samuel; Strowig, Till; et al. (Frontiers, 2021-09-08)
      The intestinal microbiota modulates IL-22 production in the intestine, including the induction of IL-22-producing CD4+ T helper cells. Which specific bacteria are responsible for the induction of these cells is less well understood. Here, we demonstrate through the use of novel gnotobiotic knock-in reporter mice that segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), which are known for their ability to induce Th17 cells, also induce distinct IL-17A negative CD4+ T cell populations in the intestine. A subset of these cells instead produces IL-22 upon restimulation ex vivo and also during enteric infections. Furthermore, they produce a distinct set of cytokines compared to Th17 cells including the differential expression of IL-17F and IFN-γ. Importantly, genetic models demonstrate that these cells, presumably Th22 cells, develop independently of intestinal Th17 cells. Together, our data identifies that besides Th17, SFB also induces CD4+ T cell populations, which serve as immediate source of IL-22 during intestinal inflammation.
    • A Central Role for Atg5 in Microbiota-Dependent Foxp3 RORγt Treg Cell Preservation to Maintain Intestinal Immune Homeostasis.

      Plaza-Sirvent, Carlos; Zhao, Bei; Bronietzki, Alisha W; Pils, Marina C; Tafrishi, Neda; Schuster, Marc; Strowig, Till; Schmitz, Ingo; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Frontiers, 2021-08-26)
      Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic pathway that ensures the degradation of intracellular components. The autophagic pathway is regulated by autophagy-related (Atg) proteins that govern formation of double-membraned vesicles called autophagosomes. Autophagy deficiency in regulatory T (Treg) cells leads to increased apoptosis of these cells and to the development of autoimmune disorders, predominantly characterized by intestinal inflammation. Recently, RORγt-expressing Treg cells have been identified as key regulators of gut homeostasis, preventing intestinal immunopathology. To study the role of autophagy in RORγt+ Foxp3+ Treg cells, we generated mice lacking the essential component of the core autophagy machinery Atg5 in Foxp3+ cells. Atg5 deficiency in Treg cells led to a predominant intestinal inflammation. While Atg5-deficient Treg cells were reduced in peripheral lymphoid organs, the intestinal RORγt+ Foxp3+ subpopulation of Treg cells was most severely affected. Our data indicated that autophagy is essential to maintain the intestinal RORγt+ Foxp3+ Treg population, thereby protecting the mice from gut inflammatory disorders.
    • Comparison of Chicken Cecal Microbiota after Metaphylactic Treatment or Following Administration of Feed Additives in a Broiler Farm with Enterococcal Spondylitis History.

      Hankel, Julia; Bodmann, Björn; Todte, Matthias; Galvez, Eric; Strowig, Till; Radko, Dimitri; Antakli, Ali; Visscher, Christian; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2021-08-23)
      Minimizing the clinical signs of Enterococcus cecorum infections causing enterococcal spondylitis in broiler herds is successful when initiated as metaphylaxis in the first week of life. Mechanistically, either the Enterococcus species present at that time are reduced by antibiotic treatment or antibiotic treatment might induce changes in intestinal microbiota composition with an indirect and subsequent influence. The aim of the present study was to examine the cecal microbiota of chickens after administering lincospectin or different additives to evaluate whether these additives have lincospectin-like effects on microbiota. Therefore, 157,400 broiler chickens were reared in four chicken houses (~40,000 birds each) on a broiler farm with history of enterococcal spondylitis. Each flock was treated either with lincospectin or water soluble esterified butyrins, Bacillus (B.) licheniformis or palm oil was added via drinking water during the first days of life. Ten birds per house were dissected at days 11, 20 and 33 of life and cecal microbiota were analyzed (16S rRNA gene sequencing). Lincospectin treatment elicited significant changes in the cecal microbiota composition until slaughter age. Among the tested additives, effects of B. licheniformis on cecal microbiota composition were most similar to those seen after the treatment with lincospectin at day 11.
    • The microbiota is dispensable for the early stages of peripheral regulatory T cell induction within mesenteric lymph nodes.

      Wiechers, Carolin; Zou, Mangge; Galvez, Eric; Beckstette, Michael; Ebel, Maria; Strowig, Till; Huehn, Jochen; Pezoldt, Joern; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer Nature, 2021-03-24)
      Intestinal Foxp3+ regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets are crucial players in tolerance to microbiota-derived and food-borne antigens, and compelling evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota modulates their generation, functional specialization, and maintenance. Selected bacterial species and microbiota-derived metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), have been reported to promote Treg homeostasis in the intestinal lamina propria. Furthermore, gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) are particularly efficient sites for the generation of peripherally induced Tregs (pTregs). Despite this knowledge, the direct role of the microbiota and their metabolites in the early stages of pTreg induction within mLNs is not fully elucidated. Here, using an adoptive transfer-based pTreg induction system, we demonstrate that neither transfer of a dysbiotic microbiota nor dietary SCFA supplementation modulated the pTreg induction capacity of mLNs. Even mice housed under germ-free (GF) conditions displayed equivalent pTreg induction within mLNs. Further molecular characterization of these de novo induced pTregs from mLNs by dissection of their transcriptomes and accessible chromatin regions revealed that the microbiota indeed has a limited impact and does not contribute to the initialization of the Treg-specific epigenetic landscape. Overall, our data suggest that the microbiota is dispensable for the early stages of pTreg induction within mLNs.
    • Single-cell chromatin accessibility landscape identifies tissue repair program in human regulatory T cells.

      Delacher, Michael; Simon, Malte; Sanderink, Lieke; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Wuttke, Marina; Schambeck, Kathrin; Schmidleithner, Lisa; Bittner, Sebastian; Pant, Asmita; Ritter, Uwe; et al. (Cell Press, 2021-03-30)
      Murine regulatory T (Treg) cells in tissues promote tissue homeostasis and regeneration. We sought to identify features that characterize human Treg cells with these functions in healthy tissues. Single-cell chromatin accessibility profiles of murine and human tissue Treg cells defined a conserved, microbiota-independent tissue-repair Treg signature with a prevailing footprint of the transcription factor BATF. This signature, combined with gene expression profiling and TCR fate mapping, identified a population of tissue-like Treg cells in human peripheral blood that expressed BATF, chemokine receptor CCR8 and HLA-DR. Human BATF+CCR8+ Treg cells from normal skin and adipose tissue shared features with nonlymphoid T follicular helper-like (Tfh-like) cells, and induction of a Tfh-like differentiation program in naive human Treg cells partially recapitulated tissue Treg regenerative characteristics, including wound healing potential. Human BATF+CCR8+ Treg cells from healthy tissue share features with tumor-resident Treg cells, highlighting the importance of understanding the context-specific functions of these cells.
    • Fasting alters the gut microbiome reducing blood pressure and body weight in metabolic syndrome patients.

      Maifeld, András; Bartolomaeus, Hendrik; Löber, Ulrike; Avery, Ellen G; Steckhan, Nico; Markó, Lajos; Wilck, Nicola; Hamad, Ibrahim; Šušnjar, Urša; Mähler, Anja; et al. (NPG, 2021-03-30)
      Periods of fasting and refeeding may reduce cardiometabolic risk elevated by Western diet. Here we show in the substudy of NCT02099968, investigating the clinical parameters, the immunome and gut microbiome exploratory endpoints, that in hypertensive metabolic syndrome patients, a 5-day fast followed by a modified Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet reduces systolic blood pressure, need for antihypertensive medications, body-mass index at three months post intervention compared to a modified Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet alone. Fasting alters the gut microbiome, impacting bacterial taxa and gene modules associated with short-chain fatty acid production. Cross-system analyses reveal a positive correlation of circulating mucosa-associated invariant T cells, non-classical monocytes and CD4+ effector T cells with systolic blood pressure. Furthermore, regulatory T cells positively correlate with body-mass index and weight. Machine learning analysis of baseline immunome or microbiome data predicts sustained systolic blood pressure response within the fasting group, identifying CD8+ effector T cells, Th17 cells and regulatory T cells or Desulfovibrionaceae, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium, Akkermansia, and Ruminococcaceae as important contributors to the model. Here we report that the high-resolution multi-omics data highlight fasting as a promising non-pharmacological intervention for the treatment of high blood pressure in metabolic syndrome patients.
    • Intestinal Dysbiosis Amplifies Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Injury.

      Schneider, Kai Markus; Elfers, Carsten; Ghallab, Ahmed; Schneider, Carolin Victoria; Galvez, Eric J C; Mohs, Antje; Gui, Wenfang; Candels, Lena Susanna; Wirtz, Theresa Hildegard; Zuehlke, Sebastian; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-11-12)
      To test this hypothesis, we assessed the association of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or long-term antibiotics (ABx) intake, which have both been linked to intestinal dysbiosis, and occurrence of ALF in the 500,000 participants of the UK BioBank population-based cohort. For functional studies, male Nlrp6-/- mice were used as a dysbiotic mouse model and injected with a sublethal dose of acetaminophen (APAP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce ALF.
    • Modulation of inflammatory responses by gastrointestinal Prevotella spp. - From associations to functional studies.

      Iljazovic, Aida; Amend, Lena; Galvez, Eric J C; de Oliveira, Romulo; Strowig, Till; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Elsevier, 2021-01-08)
      Numerous studies have associated alterations in the gut microbiota composition with almost every known inflammatory disease. However, proving the biological relevance of distinct microbial signatures and linking specific microorganisms to host phenotypes, remains a considerable challenge. Correspondingly, increased abundance of members of Prevotella genus within microbial communities colonizing distinct mucosal surfaces has been found in individuals diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis, metabolic disorders, and intestinal and vaginal dysbiosis. Still, the role of Prevotella spp. in the incidence of these diseases continues to be debated. For many years, poor understanding of Prevotella biology could be in large part attributed to the lack of experimental tools. However, in the recent years significant advances have been made towards overcoming these limitations, including increased number of isolates and improved understanding of genetic diversity. Besides discussing the most relevant associations between Prevotella spp. and inflammatory disorders, in the present review we examine the recent efforts to expand the Prevotella experimental "toolbox" and we highlight remaining experimental challenges that should advance future research and our understanding of Prevotella-host interplay.
    • Curbing gastrointestinal infections by defensin fragment modifications without harming commensal microbiota.

      Koeninger, Louis; Osbelt, Lisa; Berscheid, Anne; Wendler, Judith; Berger, Jügen; Hipp, Katharina; Marina C Pils, Marina C.; Nisar P Malek, Nisar P.; Heike Brötz-Oesterhelt, Heike; Strowig, Till; et al. (Nature research, 2021-01-08)
      The occurrence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens, especially bacteria from the ESKAPE panel, increases the risk to succumb to untreatable infections. We developed a novel antimicrobial peptide, Pam-3, with antibacterial and antibiofilm properties to counter this threat. The peptide is based on an eight-amino acid carboxyl-terminal fragment of human β-defensin 1. Pam-3 exhibited prominent antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant ESKAPE pathogens and additionally eradicated already established biofilms in vitro, primarily by disrupting membrane integrity of its target cell. Importantly, prolonged exposure did not result in drug-resistance to Pam-3. In mouse models, Pam-3 selectively reduced acute intestinal Salmonella and established Citrobacter infections, without compromising the core microbiota, hence displaying an added benefit to traditional broad-spectrum antibiotics. In conclusion, our data support the development of defensin-derived antimicrobial agents as a novel approach to fight multidrug-resistant bacteria, where Pam-3 appears as a particularly promising microbiota-preserving candidate.
    • A collection of bacterial isolates from the pig intestine reveals functional and taxonomic diversity.

      Wylensek, David; Hitch, Thomas C A; Riedel, Thomas; Afrizal, Afrizal; Kumar, Neeraj; Wortmann, Esther; Liu, Tianzhe; Devendran, Saravanan; Lesker, Till R; Hernández, Sara B; et al. (Nature Pulishing Group, 2020-12-15)
      Our knowledge about the gut microbiota of pigs is still scarce, despite the importance of these animals for biomedical research and agriculture. Here, we present a collection of cultured bacteria from the pig gut, including 110 species across 40 families and nine phyla. We provide taxonomic descriptions for 22 novel species and 16 genera. Meta-analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon sequence data and metagenome-assembled genomes reveal prevalent and pig-specific species within Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Clostridium, Desulfovibrio, Enterococcus, Fusobacterium, and several new genera described in this study. Potentially interesting functions discovered in these organisms include a fucosyltransferase encoded in the genome of the novel species Clostridium porci, and prevalent gene clusters for biosynthesis of sactipeptide-like peptides. Many strains deconjugate primary bile acids in in vitro assays, and a Clostridium scindens strain produces secondary bile acids via dehydroxylation. In addition, cells of the novel species Bullifex porci are coccoidal or spherical under the culture conditions tested, in contrast with the usual helical shape of other members of the family Spirochaetaceae. The strain collection, called ‘Pig intestinal bacterial collection’ (PiBAC), is publicly available at www.dsmz.de/pibac and opens new avenues for functional studies of the pig gut microbiota.
    • Dietary Short-Term Fiber Interventions in Arthritis Patients Increase Systemic SCFA Levels and Regulate Inflammation.

      Dürholz, Kerstin; Hofmann, Jörg; Iljazovic, Aida; Häger, Julian; Lucas, Sébastien; Sarter, Kerstin; Strowig, Till; Bang, Holger; Rech, Jürgen; Schett, Georg; et al. (MDPI, 2020-10-20)
      Chronic inflammatory diseases are often initiated and guided by the release of proinflammatory mediators. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is caused by an imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in the joints, thereby favoring chronic inflammation and joint damage. Here, we investigate if short-term high-fiber dietary intervention shifts this towards anti-inflammatory mediators. Healthy controls (n = 10) and RA patients (n = 29) under routine care received daily high-fiber bars for 15 or 30 days, respectively. Stool and sera were analyzed for pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. A high-fiber dietary intervention resulted in increased anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), decreased proarthritic cytokine concentrations, along with a durable shift in the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio. Together, these results further strengthen high-fiber dietary interventions as a practical approach complementing existing pharmacological therapies.
    • Distinct Polysaccharide Utilization Determines Interspecies Competition between Intestinal Prevotella spp.

      Gálvez, Eric J C; Iljazovic, Aida; Amend, Lena; Lesker, Till Robin; Renault, Thibaud; Thiemann, Sophie; Hao, Lianxu; Roy, Urmi; Gronow, Achim; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; et al. (Elsevier (CellPress), 2020-10-13)
      Prevotella spp. are a dominant bacterial genus within the human gut. Multiple Prevotella spp. co-exist in some individuals, particularly those consuming plant-based diets. Additionally, Prevotella spp. exhibit variability in the utilization of diverse complex carbohydrates. To investigate the relationship between Prevotella competition and diet, we isolated Prevotella species from the mouse gut, analyzed their genomes and transcriptomes in vivo, and performed competition experiments between species in mice. Diverse dominant Prevotella species compete for similar metabolic niches in vivo, which is linked to the upregulation of specific polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). Complex plant-derived polysaccharides are required for Prevotella spp. expansion, with arabinoxylans having a prominent impact on species abundance. The most dominant Prevotella species encodes a specific tandem-repeat trsusC/D PUL that enables arabinoxylan utilization and is conserved in human Prevotella copri strains, particularly among those consuming a vegan diet. These findings suggest that efficient (arabino)xylan-utilization is a factor contributing to Prevotella dominance.
    • Perturbation of the gut microbiome by Prevotella spp. enhances host susceptibility to mucosal inflammation.

      Iljazovic, Aida; Roy, Urmi; Gálvez, Eric J C; Lesker, Till R; Zhao, Bei; Gronow, Achim; Amend, Lena; Will, Sabine E; Hofmann, Julia D; Pils, Marina C; et al. (Springer Nature, 2020-05-20)
      Diverse microbial signatures within the intestinal microbiota have been associated with intestinal and systemic inflammatory diseases, but whether these candidate microbes actively modulate host phenotypes or passively expand within the altered microbial ecosystem is frequently not known. Here we demonstrate that colonization of mice with a member of the genus Prevotella, which has been previously associated to colitis in mice, exacerbates intestinal inflammation. Our analysis revealed that Prevotella intestinalis alters composition and function of the ecosystem resulting in a reduction of short-chain fatty acids, specifically acetate, and consequently a decrease in intestinal IL-18 levels during steady state. Supplementation of IL-18 to Prevotella-colonized mice was sufficient to reduce intestinal inflammation. Hence, we conclude that intestinal Prevotella colonization results in metabolic changes in the microbiota, which reduce IL-18 production and consequently exacerbate intestinal inflammation, and potential systemic autoimmunity.
    • Microbiota-dependent expansion of testicular IL-17-producing Vγ6 γδ T cells upon puberty promotes local tissue immune surveillance.

      Wilharm, Anneke; Brigas, Helena C; Sandrock, Inga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Amado, Tiago; Reinhardt, Annika; Demera, Abdi; Hoenicke, Lisa; Strowig, Till; Carvalho, Tânia; et al. (Springer Nature, 2020-07-30)
      γδT cells represent the majority of lymphocytes in several mucosal tissues where they contribute to tissue homoeostasis, microbial defence and wound repair. Here we characterise a population of interleukin (IL) 17-producing γδ (γδ17) T cells that seed the testis of naive C57BL/6 mice, expand at puberty and persist throughout adulthood. We show that this population is foetal-derived and displays a T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire highly biased towards Vγ6-containing rearrangements. These γδ17 cells were the major source of IL-17 in the testis, whereas αβ T cells mostly provided interferon (IFN)-γ in situ. Importantly, testicular γδ17 cell homoeostasis was strongly dependent on the microbiota and Toll-like receptor (TLR4)/IL-1α/IL-23 signalling. We further found that γδ17 cells contributed to tissue surveillance in a model of experimental orchitis induced by intra-testicular inoculation of Listeria monocytogenes, as Tcrδ-/- and Il17-/- infected mice displayed higher bacterial loads than wild-type (WT) controls and died 3 days after infection. Altogether, this study identified a previously unappreciated foetal-derived γδ17 cell subset that infiltrates the testis at steady state, expands upon puberty and plays a crucial role in local tissue immune surveillance.
    • Faecal Microbiota of Dogs Offered a Vegetarian Diet with or without the Supplementation of Feather Meal and either Cornmeal, Rye or Fermented Rye: A Preliminary Study.

      Hankel, Julia; Abd El-Wahab, Amr; Grone, Richard; Keller, Birgit; Galvez, Eric; Strowig, Till; Visscher, Christian; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-09-06)
      Anthropomorphism of dogs has affected feeding and the choice of components present in diets for dogs. Conflicting trends are present: raw or vegetarian appear more prevalent. Animal-derived proteins seem to have unfavourable impacts on intestinal microflora by decreasing the presence of Bacteroidetes. This preliminary study evaluates whether effects of diets with animal proteins on intestinal microbiota can be compensated by the addition of certain carbohydrates to dog diet. Eight female beagles were included in a cross-over study and fed a vegetarian diet or the same diet supplemented with feather meal (2.7%) and either 20% of cornmeal, fermented or non-fermented rye (moisture content of the diets about 42%). A 16S rRNA gene amplification was performed within the hypervariable region V4 on faecal samples and sequenced with the Illumina MiSeq platform. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio tended to shift to the advantage of Firmicutes when feather meal and cornmeal were added (Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of 5.12 compared to 2.47 when offered the vegetarian diet) and tended to switch back to the advantage of Bacteroidetes if rye: fermented (2.17) or not (1.03) was added. The addition of rye might have the potential to compensate possible unfavourable effects of diets with animal proteins on intestinal microbiota of dogs.
    • IL22BP Mediates the Anti-Tumor Effects of Lymphotoxin Against Colorectal Tumors in Mice and Humans.

      Kempski, Jan; Giannou, Anastasios D; Riecken, Kristoffer; Zhao, Lilan; Steglich, Babett; Lücke, Jöran; Garcia-Perez, Laura; Karstens, Karl-Frederick; Wöstemeier, Anna; Nawrocki, Mikolaj; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-06-18)
      We obtained tumor and non-tumor tissues from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and measured levels of cytokines by quantitative PCR, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry. We measured levels of Il22bp mRNA in colon tissues from wild-type, Tnf-/-, Lta-/-, and Ltb-/- mice. Mice were given azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate, to induce colitis and associated cancer, or intra-caecal injections of MC38 tumor cells. Some mice were given inhibitors of lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTBR). Intestine tissues were analyzed by single-cell sequencing to identify cell sources of lymphotoxin. We performed immunohistochemistry analysis of colon tissue microarrays from patients with CRC (1475 tissue cores, contained tumor and non-tumor tissues) and correlated levels of IL22BP with patient survival times.
    • Intestinal Microbiota of Fattening Pigs Offered Non-Fermented and Fermented Liquid Feed with and without the Supplementation of Non-Fermented Coarse Cereals.

      Bunte, Sebastian; Grone, Richard; Keller, Birgit; Keller, Christoph; Galvez, Eric; Strowig, Till; Kamphues, Josef; Hankel, Julia; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-04-27)
      Introducing high numbers of lactic acid bacteria into the gastrointestinal tract of pigs via fermented liquid feed (FLF) could have an impact on intestinal bacterial ecosystems. Twenty piglets were allocated into four groups and fed a botanically identical liquid diet that was offered either non-fermented (twice), fully fermented or partially fermented but supplemented with 40% of non-fermented coarse cereals. Microbiota studies were performed on the small and large intestine digesta and faecal samples. A 16S rRNA gene amplification was performed within the hypervariable region V4 and sequenced with the Illumina MiSeq platform. R (version 3.5.2) was used for the statistical analyses. The digesta of the small intestines of pigs fed FLF were dominated by Lactobacillaceae (relative abundance up to 95%). In the colonic contents, the abundance of Lactobacillaceae was significantly higher only in the pigs fed the FLF supplemented with non-fermented coarse cereals. Additionally, the digesta of the small and large intestines as well as in the faeces of the pigs fed the FLF supplemented with non-fermented coarse cereals were significantly enriched for two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The FLF supplemented with non-fermented coarse cereals had probiotic and prebiotic-like impacts on the intestinal and faecal bacterial composition of pigs.
    • Microbiota Alters Urinary Bladder Weight and Gene Expression.

      Roje, Blanka; Elek, Anamaria; Palada, Vinko; Bom, Joana; Iljazović, Aida; Šimić, Ana; Sušak, Lana; Vilović, Katarina; Strowig, Till; Vlahoviček, Kristian; et al. (MDPI, 2020-03-17)
      We studied the effect of microbiota on the transcriptome and weight of the urinary bladder by comparing germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) housed mice. In total, 97 genes were differently expressed (fold change > ±2; false discovery rate (FDR) p-value < 0.01) between the groups, including genes regulating circadian rhythm (Per1, Per2 and Per3), extracellular matrix (Spo1, Spon2), and neuromuscular synaptic transmission (Slc18a3, Slc5a7, Chrnb4, Chrna3, Snap25). The highest increase in expression was observed for immunoglobulin genes (Igkv1-122, Igkv4-68) of unknown function, but surprisingly the absence of microbiota did not change the expression of the genes responsible for recognizing microbes and their products. We found that urinary bladder weight was approximately 25% lighter in GF mice (p = 0.09 for males, p = 0.005 for females) and in mice treated with broad spectrum of antibiotics (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, our data indicate that microbiota is an important determinant of urinary bladder physiology controlling its gene expression and size.