Browsing Department of microbial immunoregulation (MIKI) by Journal
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c-FLIP is crucial for IL-7/IL-15-dependent NKp46 ILC development and protection from intestinal inflammation in mice.NKp46+ innate lymphoid cells (ILC) modulate tissue homeostasis and anti-microbial immune responses. ILC development and function are regulated by cytokines such as Interleukin (IL)-7 and IL-15. However, the ILC-intrinsic pathways translating cytokine signals into developmental programs are largely unknown. Here we show that the anti-apoptotic molecule cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is crucial for the generation of IL-7/IL-15-dependent NKp46+ ILC1, including conventional natural killer (cNK) cells, and ILC3. Cytokine-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) precedes up-regulation of c-FLIP, which protects developing NKp46+ ILC from TNF-induced apoptosis. NKp46+ ILC-specific inactivation of c-FLIP leads to the loss of all IL-7/IL-15-dependent NKp46+ ILC, thereby inducing early-onset chronic colitis and subsequently microbial dysbiosis; meanwhile, the depletion of cNK, but not NKp46+ ILC1/3, aggravates experimental colitis. In summary, our data demonstrate a non-redundant function of c-FLIP for the generation of NKp46+ ILC, which protect T/B lymphocyte-sufficient mice from intestinal inflammation.
A collection of bacterial isolates from the pig intestine reveals functional and taxonomic diversity.Our knowledge about the gut microbiota of pigs is still scarce, despite the importance of these animals for biomedical research and agriculture. Here, we present a collection of cultured bacteria from the pig gut, including 110 species across 40 families and nine phyla. We provide taxonomic descriptions for 22 novel species and 16 genera. Meta-analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon sequence data and metagenome-assembled genomes reveal prevalent and pig-specific species within Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Clostridium, Desulfovibrio, Enterococcus, Fusobacterium, and several new genera described in this study. Potentially interesting functions discovered in these organisms include a fucosyltransferase encoded in the genome of the novel species Clostridium porci, and prevalent gene clusters for biosynthesis of sactipeptide-like peptides. Many strains deconjugate primary bile acids in in vitro assays, and a Clostridium scindens strain produces secondary bile acids via dehydroxylation. In addition, cells of the novel species Bullifex porci are coccoidal or spherical under the culture conditions tested, in contrast with the usual helical shape of other members of the family Spirochaetaceae. The strain collection, called ‘Pig intestinal bacterial collection’ (PiBAC), is publicly available at www.dsmz.de/pibac and opens new avenues for functional studies of the pig gut microbiota.
Short-chain fatty acids regulate systemic bone mass and protect from pathological bone loss.Microbial metabolites are known to modulate immune responses of the host. The main metabolites derived from microbial fermentation of dietary fibers in the intestine, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), affect local and systemic immune functions. Here we show that SCFA are regulators of osteoclast metabolism and bone mass in vivo. Treatment of mice with SCFA as well as feeding with a high-fiber diet significantly increases bone mass and prevents postmenopausal and inflammation-induced bone loss. The protective effects of SCFA on bone mass are associated with inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo, while bone formation is not affected. Mechanistically, propionate (C3) and butyrate (C4) induce metabolic reprogramming of osteoclasts resulting in enhanced glycolysis at the expense of oxidative phosphorylation, thereby downregulating essential osteoclast genes such as TRAF6 and NFATc1. In summary, these data identify SCFA as potent regulators of osteoclast metabolism and bone homeostasis.