head of the department: Dr. Till Strowig

Recent Submissions

  • Dietary Short-Term Fiber Interventions in Arthritis Patients Increase Systemic SCFA Levels and Regulate Inflammation.

    Dürholz, Kerstin; Hofmann, Jörg; Iljazovic, Aida; Häger, Julian; Lucas, Sébastien; Sarter, Kerstin; Strowig, Till; Bang, Holger; Rech, Jürgen; Schett, Georg; et al. (MDPI, 2020-10-20)
    Chronic inflammatory diseases are often initiated and guided by the release of proinflammatory mediators. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is caused by an imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in the joints, thereby favoring chronic inflammation and joint damage. Here, we investigate if short-term high-fiber dietary intervention shifts this towards anti-inflammatory mediators. Healthy controls (n = 10) and RA patients (n = 29) under routine care received daily high-fiber bars for 15 or 30 days, respectively. Stool and sera were analyzed for pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. A high-fiber dietary intervention resulted in increased anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), decreased proarthritic cytokine concentrations, along with a durable shift in the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio. Together, these results further strengthen high-fiber dietary interventions as a practical approach complementing existing pharmacological therapies.
  • Distinct Polysaccharide Utilization Determines Interspecies Competition between Intestinal Prevotella spp.

    Gálvez, Eric J C; Iljazovic, Aida; Amend, Lena; Lesker, Till Robin; Renault, Thibaud; Thiemann, Sophie; Hao, Lianxu; Roy, Urmi; Gronow, Achim; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; et al. (Elsevier (CellPress), 2020-10-13)
    Prevotella spp. are a dominant bacterial genus within the human gut. Multiple Prevotella spp. co-exist in some individuals, particularly those consuming plant-based diets. Additionally, Prevotella spp. exhibit variability in the utilization of diverse complex carbohydrates. To investigate the relationship between Prevotella competition and diet, we isolated Prevotella species from the mouse gut, analyzed their genomes and transcriptomes in vivo, and performed competition experiments between species in mice. Diverse dominant Prevotella species compete for similar metabolic niches in vivo, which is linked to the upregulation of specific polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). Complex plant-derived polysaccharides are required for Prevotella spp. expansion, with arabinoxylans having a prominent impact on species abundance. The most dominant Prevotella species encodes a specific tandem-repeat trsusC/D PUL that enables arabinoxylan utilization and is conserved in human Prevotella copri strains, particularly among those consuming a vegan diet. These findings suggest that efficient (arabino)xylan-utilization is a factor contributing to Prevotella dominance.
  • Perturbation of the gut microbiome by Prevotella spp. enhances host susceptibility to mucosal inflammation.

    Iljazovic, Aida; Roy, Urmi; Gálvez, Eric J C; Lesker, Till R; Zhao, Bei; Gronow, Achim; Amend, Lena; Will, Sabine E; Hofmann, Julia D; Pils, Marina C; et al. (Springer Nature, 2020-05-20)
    Diverse microbial signatures within the intestinal microbiota have been associated with intestinal and systemic inflammatory diseases, but whether these candidate microbes actively modulate host phenotypes or passively expand within the altered microbial ecosystem is frequently not known. Here we demonstrate that colonization of mice with a member of the genus Prevotella, which has been previously associated to colitis in mice, exacerbates intestinal inflammation. Our analysis revealed that Prevotella intestinalis alters composition and function of the ecosystem resulting in a reduction of short-chain fatty acids, specifically acetate, and consequently a decrease in intestinal IL-18 levels during steady state. Supplementation of IL-18 to Prevotella-colonized mice was sufficient to reduce intestinal inflammation. Hence, we conclude that intestinal Prevotella colonization results in metabolic changes in the microbiota, which reduce IL-18 production and consequently exacerbate intestinal inflammation, and potential systemic autoimmunity.
  • Microbiota-dependent expansion of testicular IL-17-producing Vγ6 γδ T cells upon puberty promotes local tissue immune surveillance.

    Wilharm, Anneke; Brigas, Helena C; Sandrock, Inga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Amado, Tiago; Reinhardt, Annika; Demera, Abdi; Hoenicke, Lisa; Strowig, Till; Carvalho, Tânia; et al. (Springer Nature, 2020-07-30)
    γδT cells represent the majority of lymphocytes in several mucosal tissues where they contribute to tissue homoeostasis, microbial defence and wound repair. Here we characterise a population of interleukin (IL) 17-producing γδ (γδ17) T cells that seed the testis of naive C57BL/6 mice, expand at puberty and persist throughout adulthood. We show that this population is foetal-derived and displays a T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire highly biased towards Vγ6-containing rearrangements. These γδ17 cells were the major source of IL-17 in the testis, whereas αβ T cells mostly provided interferon (IFN)-γ in situ. Importantly, testicular γδ17 cell homoeostasis was strongly dependent on the microbiota and Toll-like receptor (TLR4)/IL-1α/IL-23 signalling. We further found that γδ17 cells contributed to tissue surveillance in a model of experimental orchitis induced by intra-testicular inoculation of Listeria monocytogenes, as Tcrδ-/- and Il17-/- infected mice displayed higher bacterial loads than wild-type (WT) controls and died 3 days after infection. Altogether, this study identified a previously unappreciated foetal-derived γδ17 cell subset that infiltrates the testis at steady state, expands upon puberty and plays a crucial role in local tissue immune surveillance.
  • Faecal Microbiota of Dogs Offered a Vegetarian Diet with or without the Supplementation of Feather Meal and either Cornmeal, Rye or Fermented Rye: A Preliminary Study.

    Hankel, Julia; Abd El-Wahab, Amr; Grone, Richard; Keller, Birgit; Galvez, Eric; Strowig, Till; Visscher, Christian; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-09-06)
    Anthropomorphism of dogs has affected feeding and the choice of components present in diets for dogs. Conflicting trends are present: raw or vegetarian appear more prevalent. Animal-derived proteins seem to have unfavourable impacts on intestinal microflora by decreasing the presence of Bacteroidetes. This preliminary study evaluates whether effects of diets with animal proteins on intestinal microbiota can be compensated by the addition of certain carbohydrates to dog diet. Eight female beagles were included in a cross-over study and fed a vegetarian diet or the same diet supplemented with feather meal (2.7%) and either 20% of cornmeal, fermented or non-fermented rye (moisture content of the diets about 42%). A 16S rRNA gene amplification was performed within the hypervariable region V4 on faecal samples and sequenced with the Illumina MiSeq platform. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio tended to shift to the advantage of Firmicutes when feather meal and cornmeal were added (Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of 5.12 compared to 2.47 when offered the vegetarian diet) and tended to switch back to the advantage of Bacteroidetes if rye: fermented (2.17) or not (1.03) was added. The addition of rye might have the potential to compensate possible unfavourable effects of diets with animal proteins on intestinal microbiota of dogs.
  • IL22BP Mediates the Anti-Tumor Effects of Lymphotoxin Against Colorectal Tumors in Mice and Humans.

    Kempski, Jan; Giannou, Anastasios D; Riecken, Kristoffer; Zhao, Lilan; Steglich, Babett; Lücke, Jöran; Garcia-Perez, Laura; Karstens, Karl-Frederick; Wöstemeier, Anna; Nawrocki, Mikolaj; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-06-18)
    We obtained tumor and non-tumor tissues from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and measured levels of cytokines by quantitative PCR, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry. We measured levels of Il22bp mRNA in colon tissues from wild-type, Tnf-/-, Lta-/-, and Ltb-/- mice. Mice were given azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate, to induce colitis and associated cancer, or intra-caecal injections of MC38 tumor cells. Some mice were given inhibitors of lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTBR). Intestine tissues were analyzed by single-cell sequencing to identify cell sources of lymphotoxin. We performed immunohistochemistry analysis of colon tissue microarrays from patients with CRC (1475 tissue cores, contained tumor and non-tumor tissues) and correlated levels of IL22BP with patient survival times.
  • Intestinal Microbiota of Fattening Pigs Offered Non-Fermented and Fermented Liquid Feed with and without the Supplementation of Non-Fermented Coarse Cereals.

    Bunte, Sebastian; Grone, Richard; Keller, Birgit; Keller, Christoph; Galvez, Eric; Strowig, Till; Kamphues, Josef; Hankel, Julia; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-04-27)
    Introducing high numbers of lactic acid bacteria into the gastrointestinal tract of pigs via fermented liquid feed (FLF) could have an impact on intestinal bacterial ecosystems. Twenty piglets were allocated into four groups and fed a botanically identical liquid diet that was offered either non-fermented (twice), fully fermented or partially fermented but supplemented with 40% of non-fermented coarse cereals. Microbiota studies were performed on the small and large intestine digesta and faecal samples. A 16S rRNA gene amplification was performed within the hypervariable region V4 and sequenced with the Illumina MiSeq platform. R (version 3.5.2) was used for the statistical analyses. The digesta of the small intestines of pigs fed FLF were dominated by Lactobacillaceae (relative abundance up to 95%). In the colonic contents, the abundance of Lactobacillaceae was significantly higher only in the pigs fed the FLF supplemented with non-fermented coarse cereals. Additionally, the digesta of the small and large intestines as well as in the faeces of the pigs fed the FLF supplemented with non-fermented coarse cereals were significantly enriched for two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The FLF supplemented with non-fermented coarse cereals had probiotic and prebiotic-like impacts on the intestinal and faecal bacterial composition of pigs.
  • Variations in microbiota composition of laboratory mice influence Citrobacter rodentium infection via variable short-chain fatty acid production.

    Osbelt, Lisa; Thiemann, Sophie; Smit, Nathiana; Lesker, Till Robin; Schröter, Madita; Gálvez, Eric J C; Schmidt-Hohagen, Kerstin; Pils, Marina C; Mühlen, Sabrina; Dersch, Petra; et al. (PLOS, 2020-03-24)
    The composition of the intestinal microbiota influences the outcome of enteric infections in human and mice. However, the role of specific members and their metabolites contributing to disease severity is largely unknown. Using isogenic mouse lines harboring distinct microbiota communities, we observed highly variable disease kinetics of enteric Citrobacter rodentium colonization after infection. Transfer of communities from susceptible and resistant mice into germ-free mice verified that the varying susceptibilities are determined by microbiota composition. The strongest differences in colonization were observed in the cecum and could be maintained in vitro by coculturing cecal bacteria with C. rodentium. Cohousing of animals as well as the transfer of cultivable bacteria from resistant to susceptible mice led to variable outcomes in the recipient mice. Microbiome analysis revealed that a higher abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria was associated with the resistant phenotype. Quantification of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels before and after infection revealed increased concentrations of acetate, butyrate and propionate in mice with delayed colonization. Addition of physiological concentrations of butyrate, but not of acetate and/or propionate strongly impaired growth of C. rodentium in vitro. In vivo supplementation of susceptible, antibiotic-treated and germ-free mice with butyrate led to the same level of protection, notably only when cecal butyrate concentration reached a concentration higher than 50 nmol/mg indicating a critical threshold for protection. In the recent years, commensal-derived primary and secondary bacterial metabolites emerged as potent modulators of hosts susceptibility to infection. Our results provide evidence that variations in SCFA production in mice fed fibre-rich chow-based diets modulate susceptibility to colonization with Enterobacteriaceae not only in antibiotic-disturbed ecosystems but even in undisturbed microbial communities. These findings emphasise the need for microbiota normalization across laboratory mouse lines for infection experiments with the model-pathogen C. rodentium independent of investigations of diet and antibiotic usage.
  • Microbiota Alters Urinary Bladder Weight and Gene Expression.

    Roje, Blanka; Elek, Anamaria; Palada, Vinko; Bom, Joana; Iljazović, Aida; Šimić, Ana; Sušak, Lana; Vilović, Katarina; Strowig, Till; Vlahoviček, Kristian; et al. (MDPI, 2020-03-17)
    We studied the effect of microbiota on the transcriptome and weight of the urinary bladder by comparing germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) housed mice. In total, 97 genes were differently expressed (fold change > ±2; false discovery rate (FDR) p-value < 0.01) between the groups, including genes regulating circadian rhythm (Per1, Per2 and Per3), extracellular matrix (Spo1, Spon2), and neuromuscular synaptic transmission (Slc18a3, Slc5a7, Chrnb4, Chrna3, Snap25). The highest increase in expression was observed for immunoglobulin genes (Igkv1-122, Igkv4-68) of unknown function, but surprisingly the absence of microbiota did not change the expression of the genes responsible for recognizing microbes and their products. We found that urinary bladder weight was approximately 25% lighter in GF mice (p = 0.09 for males, p = 0.005 for females) and in mice treated with broad spectrum of antibiotics (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, our data indicate that microbiota is an important determinant of urinary bladder physiology controlling its gene expression and size.
  • An Integrated Metagenome Catalog Reveals New Insights into the Murine Gut Microbiome.

    Lesker, Till R; Durairaj, Abilash C; Gálvez, Eric J C; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Baines, John F; Clavel, Thomas; Sczyrba, Alexander; McHardy, Alice C; Strowig, Till; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany.
    The complexity of host-associated microbial ecosystems requires host-specific reference catalogs to survey the functions and diversity of these communities. We generate a comprehensive resource, the integrated mouse gut metagenome catalog (iMGMC), comprising 4.6 million unique genes and 660 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), many (485 MAGs, 73%) of which are linked to reconstructed full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. iMGMC enables unprecedented coverage and taxonomic resolution of the mouse gut microbiota; i.e., more than 92% of MAGs lack species-level representatives in public repositories (<95% ANI match). The integration of MAGs and 16S rRNA gene data allows more accurate prediction of functional profiles of communities than predictions based on 16S rRNA amplicons alone. Accompanying iMGMC, we provide a set of MAGs representing 1,296 gut bacteria obtained through complementary assembly strategies. We envision that integrated resources such as iMGMC, together with MAG collections, will enhance the resolution of numerous existing and future sequencing-based studies.
  • c-FLIP is crucial for IL-7/IL-15-dependent NKp46 ILC development and protection from intestinal inflammation in mice.

    Bank, Ute; Deiser, Katrin; Plaza-Sirvent, Carlos; Osbelt, Lisa; Witte, Amelie; Knop, Laura; Labrenz, Rebecca; Jänsch, Robert; Richter, Felix; Biswas, Aindrila; et al. (Nature research, 2020-02-26)
    NKp46+ innate lymphoid cells (ILC) modulate tissue homeostasis and anti-microbial immune responses. ILC development and function are regulated by cytokines such as Interleukin (IL)-7 and IL-15. However, the ILC-intrinsic pathways translating cytokine signals into developmental programs are largely unknown. Here we show that the anti-apoptotic molecule cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is crucial for the generation of IL-7/IL-15-dependent NKp46+ ILC1, including conventional natural killer (cNK) cells, and ILC3. Cytokine-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) precedes up-regulation of c-FLIP, which protects developing NKp46+ ILC from TNF-induced apoptosis. NKp46+ ILC-specific inactivation of c-FLIP leads to the loss of all IL-7/IL-15-dependent NKp46+ ILC, thereby inducing early-onset chronic colitis and subsequently microbial dysbiosis; meanwhile, the depletion of cNK, but not NKp46+ ILC1/3, aggravates experimental colitis. In summary, our data demonstrate a non-redundant function of c-FLIP for the generation of NKp46+ ILC, which protect T/B lymphocyte-sufficient mice from intestinal inflammation.
  • The stem cell-specific long noncoding RNA HOXA10-AS in the pathogenesis of KMT2A-rearranged leukemia.

    Al-Kershi, Sina; Bhayadia, Raj; Ng, Michelle; Verboon, Lonneke; Emmrich, Stephan; Gack, Lucie; Schwarzer, Adrian; Strowig, Till; Heckl, Dirk; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; et al. (American Society of Haematology, 2019-12-23)
    HOX genes are highly conserved, and their precisely controlled expression is crucial for normal hematopoiesis. Accordingly, deregulation of HOX genes can cause leukemia. However, despite of intensive research on the coding HOX genes, the role of the numerous long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) within the HOX clusters during hematopoiesis and their contribution to leukemogenesis are incompletely understood. Here, we show that the lncRNA HOXA10-AS, located antisense to HOXA10 and mir-196b in the HOXA cluster, is highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as well as in KMT2A-rearranged and NPM1 mutated acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). Using short hairpin RNA- and locked nucleic acid-conjugated chimeric antisense oligonucleotide (LNA-GapmeR)-mediated HOXA10-AS-knockdown and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated excision in vitro, we demonstrate that HOXA10-AS acts as an oncogene in KMT2A-rearranged AML. Moreover, HOXA10-AS knockdown severely impairs the leukemic growth of KMT2A-rearranged patient-derived xenografts in vivo, while high HOXA10-AS expression can serve as a marker of poor prognosis in AML patients. Lentiviral expression of HOXA10-AS blocks normal monocytic differentiation of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Mechanistically, we show that HOXA10-AS localizes in the cytoplasm and acts in trans to induce NF-κB target genes. In total, our data imply that the normally HSC-specific HOXA10-AS is an oncogenic lncRNA in KMT2A-r AML. Thus, it may also represent a potential therapeutic target in KMT2A-rearranged AML.
  • The role of Ames dwarfism and calorie restriction on gut microbiota.

    Wiesenborn, Denise S; Gálvez, Eric J C; Spinel, Lina; Victoria, Berta; Allen, Brittany; Schneider, Augusto; Gesing, Adam; Al-Regaiey, Khalid A; Strowig, Till; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; et al. (Oxford Academic, 2019-10-30)
    The gut microbiome (GM) represents a large and very complex ecosystem of different microorganisms. There is an extensive interest in the potential role of the GM in different diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. The GM changes over the lifespan and is strongly associated with various age-related diseases. Ames dwarf (df/df) mice are characterized by an extended life- and healthspan, and although these mice are protected from many age-related diseases, their microbiome has not been studied. To determine the role of microbiota on longevity animal models, we investigated the changes in the GM of df/df and Normal control (N) mice, by comparing parents before mating and littermate mice at three distinct time points during early life. Furthermore, we studied the effects of a 6-month calorie restriction (CR), the most powerful intervention extending the lifespan. Our data revealed significant changes of the GM composition during early life development, and we detected differences in the abundance of some bacteria between df/df and N mice, already in early life. Overall, the variability of the microbiota by genotype, time-point and breeding pair showed significant differences. In addition, CR caused significant changes in microbiome according to gastrointestinal (GI) location (distal colon, ileum and cecum), genotype and diet. However, the overall impact of the genotype was more prominent than that of the CR. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the gut microbiota plays an important role during post-natal development in long-living df/df mice and CR dietary regimen can significantly modulate the GM.
  • Caecal Microbiota of Experimentally Infected Chickens at Different Ages.

    Hankel, Julia; Jung, Klaus; Kuder, Henrike; Keller, Birgit; Keller, Christoph; Galvez, Eric; Strowig, Till; Visscher, Christian; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Frontiers, 2019-01-01)
    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of foodborne zoonosis in the European Union. Infections are often linked to the consumption and handling of poultry meat. The aim of the present study was to investigate the caecal microbiota of birds infected with C. jejuni at different ages. Therefore, a total of 180 birds of the laying hybrid Lohmann Brown-Classic were housed in 12 subgroups of 15 animals each in three performed repetitions. Three birds per subgroup were experimentally infected with C. jejuni at an age of about 21 days and about 78 days (4.46 ± 0.35 log10 CFU/bird). Twenty-one days after experimental infection, microbiome studies were performed on 72 caecal samples of dissected birds (three primary infected and three further birds/subgroup). Amplification within the hypervariable region V 4 of the 16S rRNA gene was performed and sequenced with the Illumina MiSeq platform. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS® Enterprise Guide® (version 7.1) and R (version 3.5.2). Both factors, the experimental replication (p < 0.001) and the chickens' age at infection (p < 0.001) contributed significantly to the differences in microbial composition of the caecal samples. The factor experimental replication explained 24% of the sample's variability, whereas the factor age at infection explained 14% thereof. Twelve of 32 families showed a significantly different count profile between the two age groups, whereby strongest differences were seen for seven families, among them the family Campylobacteraceae (adjusted p = 0.003). The strongest difference between age groups was seen for a bacterial species that is assigned to the genus Turicibacter which in turn belongs to the family Erysipelotrichaceae (adjusted p < 0.0001). Correlation analyses revealed a common relationship in both chicken ages at infection between the absolute abundance of Campylobacteraceae and Alcaligenaceae, which consists of the genus Parasutterella. In general, concentrations of particular volatile fatty acids (VFA) demonstrated a negative correlation to absolute abundance of Campylobacteraceae, whereby the strongest link was seen for n-butyrate (-0.51141; p < 0.0001). Despite performing consecutive repetitions, the factor experimental replication contributed more to the differences of microbial composition in comparison to the factor age at infection.
  • Prdx4 limits caspase-1 activation and restricts inflammasome-mediated signaling by extracellular vesicles.

    Lipinski, Simone; Pfeuffer, Steffen; Arnold, Philipp; Treitz, Christian; Aden, Konrad; Ebsen, Henriette; Falk-Paulsen, Maren; Gisch, Nicolas; Fazio, Antonella; Kuiper, Jan; et al. (2019-09-23)
  • Prdx4 limits caspase‐1 activation and restricts inflammasome‐mediated signaling by extracellular vesicles

    Lipinski, Simone; Pfeuffer, Steffen; Arnold, Philipp; Treitz, Christian; Aden, Konrad; Ebsen, Henriette; Falk‐Paulsen, Maren; Gisch, Nicolas; Fazio, Antonella; Kuiper, Jan; et al. (EMBO Press, 2019-09-23)
    Inflammasomes are cytosolic protein complexes, which orchestrate the maturation of active IL-1β by proteolytic cleavage via caspase-1. Although many principles of inflammasome activation have been described, mechanisms that limit inflammasome-dependent immune responses remain poorly defined. Here, we show that the thiol-specific peroxidase peroxiredoxin-4 (Prdx4) directly regulates IL-1β generation by interfering with caspase-1 activity. We demonstrate that caspase-1 and Prdx4 form a redox-sensitive regulatory complex via caspase-1 cysteine 397 that leads to caspase-1 sequestration and inactivation. Mice lacking Prdx4 show an increased susceptibility to LPS-induced septic shock. This effect was phenocopied in mice carrying a conditional deletion of Prdx4 in the myeloid lineage (Prdx4-ΔLysMCre). Strikingly, we demonstrate that Prdx4 co-localizes with inflammasome components in extracellular vesicles (EVs) from inflammasome-activated macrophages. Purified EVs are able to transmit a robust IL-1β-dependent inflammatory response in vitro and also in recipient mice in vivo. Loss of Prdx4 boosts the pro-inflammatory potential of EVs. These findings identify Prdx4 as a critical regulator of inflammasome activity and provide new insights into remote cell-to-cell communication function of inflammasomes via macrophage-derived EVs
  • Prevotella copri in individuals at risk for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Alpizar-Rodriguez, Deshire; Lesker, Till Robin; Gronow, Achim; Gilbert, Benoît; Raemy, Elena; Lamacchia, Celine; Gabay, Cem; Finckh, Axel; Strowig, Till; HZI, Helmholtz Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig Germany. (BMJ-Journals, 2019-02-13)
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with a relative expansion of faecal Prevotellaceae. To determine the microbiome composition and prevalence of In an ongoing cohort study of first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with RA, we identified 'FDR controls', asymptomatic and without autoantibodies, and individuals in pre-clinical RA stages, who had either developed anticitrullinated peptide antibodies or rheumatoid factor positivity and/or symptoms and signs associated with possible RA. Stool sampling and culture-independent microbiota analyses were performed followed by descriptive statistics and statistical analyses of community structures. A total of 133 participants were included, of which 50 were categorised as 'FDR controls' and 83 in 'pre-clinical RA stages'. The microbiota of individuals in 'pre-clinical RA stages' was significantly altered compared with FDR controls. We found a significant enrichment of the bacterial family Prevotellaceae, particularly spp. enrichment in individuals in pre-clinical stages of RA, before the onset of RA, suggests a role of intestinal dysbiosis in the development of RA.
  • Performance, Fermentation Characteristics and Composition of the Microbiome in the Digest of Piglets Kept on a Feed With Humic Acid-Rich Peat.

    Visscher, Christian; Hankel, Julia; Nies, Andrea; Keller, Birgit; Galvez, Eric; Strowig, Till; Keller, Christoph; Breves, Gerhard; HZI, Helmholtz Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig Germany. (Frontiers, 2019-01-01)
    The transition from breast milk to solid feed is a dramatic change in the nutrition of piglets, frequently necessitating antibiotic treatment. In efforts to reduce the use of antibiotics, dietetic concepts based on natural feed additives are becoming more and more important. In the present study, experiments were carried out with 15 rearing piglets (days 28–56) divided into three groups that were offered different diets (Ctr [0% peat]; H1.5 [1.5% peat]; and H3.0 [3.0% peat] based on a commercial weaner recipe; all ~178 g CP, 13.7 MJ ME, 13.3 g Lys, as-fed). The contents of cecal and colon digesta were removed at necropsy. The gas formation (4 h) in colon digesta was measured using in vitro batch fermenters. For microbiome studies, 16S rRNA amplification was performed within the hypervariable region V 4 and sequenced with Illumina MiSeq platform. DNA read mapping and statistical analysis were performed using QIIME (version 1.8.0), MicrobiomeAnalyst, RStudio, and SAS Enterprise Guide. The mean body weight of the animals at the end of the trial did not show statistical differences (in kg: Ctr: 26.1 ± 4.85, H1.5: 28.5 ± 3.41, H3.0: 26.2 ± 4.92). The daily weight gains were high for this age (in g/day; Ctr: 607 ± 157; H1.5: 692 ± 101; H3.0: 615 ± 113) and the feed to gain ratio low (in kg/kg; Ctr: 1.538; H1.5: 1.462; H3.0: 1.462). Concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in the cecal content were significantly lower when peat was used (mmol/kg wet weight; Ctr: 173 ± 30.0; H1.5:134 ± 15.0; H3.0:133 ± 17.3). Numerical differences were found in the gas formation (in mL gas per 10 mL batch in 4 h; Ctr: 7.9 ± 2.2; H1.5: 7.4 ± 2.4; H3.0: 6.6 ± 1.1). The microbiome analyses in the cecal content showed significantly higher values for alpha diversity Chao 1 index for samples from the control group. Significant differences were found for bacterial relative abundance for Tenericutes at phylum level and Mollicutes at class level (p < 0.05) in cecal microbiota. Therefore, there was initial evidence that peat influences intestinal microflora causing a shift in the overall concentration of fermentation products in both, the cecal and the colon content.
  • Sequence and cultivation study of Muribaculaceae reveals novel species, host preference, and functional potential of this yet undescribed family.

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Lesker, Till R; Hitch, Thomas C A; Gálvez, Eric J C; Smit, Nathiana; Neuhaus, Klaus; Wang, Jun; Baines, John F; Abt, Birte; Stecher, Bärbel; et al. (BioMedCentral, 2019-02-19)
    Bacteria within family S24-7 (phylum Bacteroidetes) are dominant in the mouse gut microbiota and detected in the intestine of other animals. Because they had not been cultured until recently and the family classification is still ambiguous, interaction with their host was difficult to study and confusion still exists regarding sequence data annotation. We investigated family S24-7 by combining data from large-scale 16S rRNA gene analysis and from functional and taxonomic studies of metagenomic and cultured species. A total of 685 species was inferred by full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence clustering. While many species could not be assigned ecological habitats (93,045 samples analyzed), the mouse was the most commonly identified host (average of 20% relative abundance and nine co-occurring species). Shotgun metagenomics allowed reconstruction of 59 molecular species, of which 34 were representative of the 16S rRNA gene-derived species clusters. In addition, cultivation efforts allowed isolating five strains representing three species, including two novel taxa. Genome analysis revealed that S24-7 spp. are functionally distinct from neighboring families and versatile with respect to complex carbohydrate degradation. We provide novel data on the diversity, ecology, and description of bacterial family S24-7, for which the name Muribaculaceae is proposed.
  • The gut microbiota promotes hepatic fatty acid desaturation and elongation in mice.

    Kindt, Alida; Liebisch, Gerhard; Clavel, Thomas; Haller, Dirk; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Yoon, Hongsup; Kolmeder, Daniela; Sigruener, Alexander; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Seeliger, Claudine; et al. (2018-09-14)
    Interactions between the gut microbial ecosystem and host lipid homeostasis are highly relevant to host physiology and metabolic diseases. We present a comprehensive multi-omics view of the effect of intestinal microbial colonization on hepatic lipid metabolism, integrating transcriptomic, proteomic, phosphoproteomic, and lipidomic analyses of liver and plasma samples from germfree and specific pathogen-free mice. Microbes induce monounsaturated fatty acid generation by stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 and polyunsaturated fatty acid elongation by fatty acid elongase 5, leading to significant alterations in glycerophospholipid acyl-chain profiles. A composite classification score calculated from the observed alterations in fatty acid profiles in germfree mice clearly differentiates antibiotic-treated mice from untreated controls with high sensitivity. Mechanistic investigations reveal that acetate originating from gut microbial degradation of dietary fiber serves as precursor for hepatic synthesis of C16 and C18 fatty acids and their related glycerophospholipid species that are also released into the circulation.

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