• Antibacterial coating of Ti-6Al-4V surfaces using silver nano-powder mixed electrical discharge machining

      Bui, Viet D.; Mwangi, James W.; Meinshausen, Ann-Kathrin; Mueller, Andreas J.; Bertrand, Jessica; Schubert, Andreas; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Elsevier BV, 2020-02)
      Previous studies have revealed the potential of powder mixed electrical discharge machining (PMEDM) with regards to concurrently machining part geometry and coating an antibacterial layer on medical devices. This study is aimed at further demonstrating this potential. In order to do so, the PMEDM process was varied by adding different concentrations of silver nano-particles into the dielectric fluid and used to machine Ti-6Al-4V. Afterwards, the resulting machined and coated surfaces were characterized with regards to surface integrity, the coating layer's thickness, microhardness and chemical elements as well as antibacterial property. Material removal rate, tool wear and pulse signals were also analysed in order to give an insight on process feasibility. From both qualitative and quantitative results, it could be established that the surfaces machined and coated by PMEDM method have demonstrated a significant reduction of not only the amount of S. aureus bacteria, but also the number of bacterial clusters on the coating layer's surface. Moreover, the coating layer's silver content, which depends on the powder concentration suspended in the dielectric fluid, plays a vital role in the antibacterial property. As compared to surfaces without silver, surfaces containing approximately 3.78% silver content showed a significant decrease in both bacterial numbers and clusters, whereas a further increase in silver content did not result in a considerable bacterial number and cluster reduction. Regarding the machining performance, as compared to EDM without powder, machining time is remarkably decreased by using the PMEDM method.
    • Filamin A Phosphorylation at Serine 2152 by the Serine/Threonine Kinase Ndr2 Controls TCR-Induced LFA-1 Activation in T Cells.

      Waldt, Natalie; Seifert, Anke; Demiray, Yunus Emre; Devroe, Eric; Turk, Benjamin E; Reichardt, Peter; Mix, Charlie; Reinhold, Annegret; Freund, Christian; Müller, Andreas J; et al. (Frontiers, 2018-01-01)
      The integrin LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) plays a critical role in the interaction of T cells with antigen presenting cells (APCs) to promote lymphocyte differentiation and proliferation. This integrin can be present either in a closed or in an open active conformation and its activation upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation is a critical step to allow interaction with APCs. In this study we demonstrate that the serine/threonine kinase Ndr2 is critically involved in the initiation of TCR-mediated LFA-1 activation (open conformation) in T cells. Ndr2 itself becomes activated upon TCR stimulation and phosphorylates the intracellular integrin binding partner Filamin A (FLNa) at serine 2152. This phosphorylation promotes the dissociation of FLNa from LFA-1, allowing for a subsequent association of Talin and Kindlin-3 which both stabilize the open conformation of LFA-1. Our data suggest that Ndr2 activation is a crucial step to initiate TCR-mediated LFA-1 activation in T cells.
    • Longitudinal proliferation mapping in vivo reveals NADPH oxidase-mediated dampening of Staphylococcus aureus growth rates within neutrophils.

      Seiß, Elena A; Krone, Anna; Formaglio, Pauline; Goldmann, Oliver; Engelmann, Susanne; Schraven, Burkhart; Medina, Eva; Müller, Andreas J; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Nature publishing group, 2019-04-05)
      Upon the onset of inflammatory responses, bacterial pathogens are confronted with altered tissue microenvironments which can critically impact on their metabolic activity and growth. Changes in these parameters have however remained difficult to analyze over time, which would be critical to dissect the interplay between the host immune response and pathogen physiology. Here, we established an in vivo biosensor for measuring the growth rates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) on a single cell-level over days in an ongoing cutaneous infection. Using intravital 2-photon imaging and quantitative fluorescence microscopy, we show that upon neutrophil recruitment to the infection site and bacterial uptake, non-lethal dampening of S. aureus proliferation occurred. This inhibition was supported by NADPH oxidase activity. Therefore, reactive oxygen production contributes to pathogen containment within neutrophils not only by killing S. aureus, but also by restricting the growth rate of the bacterium.