• Comparing polysaccharide decomposition between the type strains Gramella echinicola KMM 6050(T) (DSM 19838(T)) and Gramella portivictoriae UST040801-001(T) (DSM 23547(T)), and emended description of Gramella echinicola Nedashkovskaya et al. 2005 emend. Shahina et al. 2014 and Gramella portivictoriae Lau et al. 2005.

      Panschin, Irina; Huang, Sixing; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Tindall, Brian J; Rohde, Manfred; Verbarg, Susanne; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Trong, Stephan; Haynes, Matthew; et al. (2016)
      Strains of the genus Gramella (family Flavobacteriacae, phylum Bacteroidetes) were isolated from marine habitats such as tidal flat sediments, coastal surface seawater and sea urchins. Flavobacteriaceae have been shown to be involved in the decomposition of plant and algal polysaccharides. However, the potential to decompose polysaccharides may differ tremendously even between species of the same genus. Gramella echinicola KMM 6050(T) (DSM 19838(T)) and Gramella portivictoriae UST040801-001(T) (DSM 23547(T)) have genomes of similar lengths, similar numbers of protein coding genes and RNA genes. Both genomes encode for a greater number of peptidases compared to 'G. forsetii'. In contrast to the genome of 'G. forsetii', both genomes comprised a smaller set of CAZymes. Seven polysaccharide utilization loci were identified in the genomes of DSM 19838(T) and DSM 23547(T). Both Gramella strains hydrolyzed starch, galactomannan, arabinoxylan and hydroxyethyl-cellulose, but not pectin, chitosan and cellulose (Avicel). Galactan and xylan were hydrolyzed by strain DSM 19838(T), whereas strain DSM 23547(T) hydrolyzed pachyman and carboxy-methyl cellulose. Conclusively, both Gramella type strains exhibit characteristic physiological, morphological and genomic differences that might be linked to their habitat. Furthermore, the identified enzymes mediating polysaccharide decomposition, are of biotechnological interest.
    • Complete genome sequence and description of Salinispira pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel spirochaete isolated form a hypersaline microbial mat.

      Ben Hania, Wajdi; Joseph, Manon; Schumann, Peter; Bunk, Boyke; Fiebig, Anne; Spröer, Cathrin; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Spring, Stefan; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2015)
      During a study of the anaerobic microbial community of a lithifying hypersaline microbial mat of Lake 21 on the Kiritimati atoll (Kiribati Republic, Central Pacific) strain L21-RPul-D2(T) was isolated. The closest phylogenetic neighbor was Spirochaeta africana Z-7692(T) that shared a 16S rRNA gene sequence identity value of 90% with the novel strain and thus was only distantly related. A comprehensive polyphasic study including determination of the complete genome sequence was initiated to characterize the novel isolate. Cells of strain L21-RPul-D2(T) had a size of 0.2 - 0.25 × 8-9 μm, were helical, motile, stained Gram-negative and produced an orange carotenoid-like pigment. Optimal conditions for growth were 35°C, a salinity of 50 g/l NaCl and a pH around 7.0. Preferred substrates for growth were carbohydrates and a few carboxylic acids. The novel strain had an obligate fermentative metabolism and produced ethanol, acetate, lactate, hydrogen and carbon dioxide during growth on glucose. Strain L21-RPul-D2(T) was aerotolerant, but oxygen did not stimulate growth. Major cellular fatty acids were C14:0, iso-C15:0, C16:0 and C18:0. The major polar lipids were an unidentified aminolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified phospholipid and two unidentified glycolipids. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained L-ornithine as diagnostic diamino acid of the cell wall peptidoglycan. The complete genome sequence was determined and annotated. The genome comprised one circular chromosome with a size of 3.78 Mbp that contained 3450 protein-coding genes and 50 RNA genes, including 2 operons of ribosomal RNA genes. The DNA G + C content was determined from the genome sequence as 51.9 mol%. There were no predicted genes encoding cytochromes or enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of respiratory lipoquinones. Based on significant differences to the uncultured type species of the genus Spirochaeta, S. plicatilis, as well as to any other phylogenetically related cultured species it is suggested to place strain L21-RPul-D2(T) (=DSM 27196(T) = JCM 18663(T)) in a novel species and genus, for which the name Salinispira pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed.
    • Complete genome sequence of DSM 30083(T), the type strain (U5/41(T)) of Escherichia coli, and a proposal for delineating subspecies in microbial taxonomy.

      Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Hahnke, Richard L; Petersen, Jörn; Scheuner, Carmen; Michael, Victoria; Fiebig, Anne; Rohde, Christine; Rohde, Manfred; Fartmann, Berthold; Goodwin, Lynne A; et al. (2014)
      Although Escherichia coli is the most widely studied bacterial model organism and often considered to be the model bacterium per se, its type strain was until now forgotten from microbial genomics. As a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project, we here describe the features of E. coli DSM 30083(T) together with its genome sequence and annotation as well as novel aspects of its phenotype. The 5,038,133 bp containing genome sequence includes 4,762 protein-coding genes and 175 RNA genes as well as a single plasmid. Affiliation of a set of 250 genome-sequenced E. coli strains, Shigella and outgroup strains to the type strain of E. coli was investigated using digital DNA:DNA-hybridization (dDDH) similarities and differences in genomic G+C content. As in the majority of previous studies, results show Shigella spp. embedded within E. coli and in most cases forming a single subgroup of it. Phylogenomic trees also recover the proposed E. coli phylotypes as monophyla with minor exceptions and place DSM 30083(T) in phylotype B2 with E. coli S88 as its closest neighbor. The widely used lab strain K-12 is not only genomically but also physiologically strongly different from the type strain. The phylotypes do not express a uniform level of character divergence as measured using dDDH, however, thus an alternative arrangement is proposed and discussed in the context of bacterial subspecies. Analyses of the genome sequences of a large number of E. coli strains and of strains from > 100 other bacterial genera indicate a value of 79-80% dDDH as the most promising threshold for delineating subspecies, which in turn suggests the presence of five subspecies within E. coli.
    • Complete genome sequence of Pirellula staleyi type strain (ATCC 27377).

      Clum, Alicia; Tindall, Brian J; Sikorski, Johannes; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Lucas, Susan; Glavina, Tijana; Del Rio; Nolan, Matt; Chen, Feng; et al. (2009)
      Pirellula staleyi Schlesner and Hirsch 1987 is the type species of the genus Pirellula of the family Planctomycetaceae. Members of this pear- or teardrop-shaped bacterium show a clearly visible pointed attachment pole and can be distinguished from other Planctomycetes by a lack of true stalks. Strains closely related to the species have been isolated from fresh and brackish water, as well as from hypersaline lakes. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of the order Planctomyces and only the second sequence from the phylum Planctobacteria/Planctomycetes. The 6,196,199 bp long genome with its 4773 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • Complete genome sequence of Planctomyces brasiliensis type strain (DSM 5305(T)), phylogenomic analysis and reclassification of Planctomycetes including the descriptions of Gimesia gen. nov., Planctopirus gen. nov. and Rubinisphaera gen. nov. and emended descriptions of the order Planctomycetales and the family Planctomycetaceae.

      Scheuner, Carmen; Tindall, Brian J; Lu, Megan; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Liolios, Konstantinos; et al. (2014)
      Planctomyces brasiliensis Schlesner 1990 belongs to the order Planctomycetales, which differs from other bacterial taxa by several distinctive features such as internal cell compartmentalization, multiplication by forming buds directly from the spherical, ovoid or pear-shaped mother cell and a cell wall consisting of a proteinaceous layer rather than a peptidoglycan layer. The first strains of P. brasiliensis, including the type strain IFAM 1448(T), were isolated from a water sample of Lagoa Vermelha, a salt pit near Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. This is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Planctomyces to be published and the sixth type strain genome sequence from the family Planctomycetaceae. The 6,006,602 bp long genome with its 4,811 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that the classification within the Planctomycetaceae is partially in conflict with its evolutionary history, as the positioning of Schlesneria renders the genus Planctomyces paraphyletic. A re-analysis of published fatty-acid measurements also does not support the current arrangement of the two genera. A quantitative comparison of phylogenetic and phenotypic aspects indicates that the three Planctomyces species with type strains available in public culture collections should be placed in separate genera. Thus the genera Gimesia, Planctopirus and Rubinisphaera are proposed to accommodate P. maris, P. limnophilus and P. brasiliensis, respectively. Pronounced differences between the reported G + C content of Gemmata obscuriglobus, Singulisphaera acidiphila and Zavarzinella formosa and G + C content calculated from their genome sequences call for emendation of their species descriptions. In addition to other features, the range of G + C values reported for the genera within the Planctomycetaceae indicates that the descriptions of the family and the order should be emended.
    • Complete genome sequence of the haloalkaliphilic, obligately chemolithoautotrophic thiosulfate and sulfide-oxidizing γ-proteobacterium Thioalkalimicrobium cyclicum type strain ALM 1 (DSM 14477(T)).

      Kappler, Ulrike; Davenport, Karen; Beatson, Scott; Lapidus, Alla; Pan, Chongle; Han, Cliff; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Rohde, Manfred; et al. (2016)
      Thioalkalimicrobium cyclicum Sorokin et al. 2002 is a member of the family Piscirickettsiaceae in the order Thiotrichales. The γ-proteobacterium belongs to the colourless sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from saline soda lakes with stable alkaline pH, such as Lake Mono (California) and Soap Lake (Washington State). Strain ALM 1(T) is characterized by its adaptation to life in the oxic/anoxic interface towards the less saline aerobic waters (mixolimnion) of the stable stratified alkaline salt lakes. Strain ALM 1(T) is the first representative of the genus Thioalkalimicrobium whose genome sequence has been deciphered and the fourth genome sequence of a type strain of the Piscirickettsiaceae to be published. The 1,932,455 bp long chromosome with its 1,684 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program (CSP) 2008.
    • Complete genome sequence of the halophilic bacterium Spirochaeta africana type strain (Z-7692(T)) from the alkaline Lake Magadi in the East African Rift.

      Liolos, Konstantinos; Abt, Birte; Scheuner, Carmen; Teshima, Hazuki; Held, Brittany; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; et al. (2013)
      Spirochaeta africana Zhilina et al. 1996 is an anaerobic, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacterium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain of the species, Z-7692(T), was isolated in 1993 or earlier from a bacterial bloom in the brine under the trona layer in a shallow lagoon of the alkaline equatorial Lake Magadi in Kenya. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. Considering the pending reclassification of S. caldaria to the genus Treponema, S. africana is only the second 'true' member of the genus Spirochaeta with a genome-sequenced type strain to be published. The 3,285,855 bp long genome of strain Z-7692(T) with its 2,817 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project.
    • Complete genome sequence of the Phaeobacter gallaeciensis type strain CIP 105210(T) (= DSM 26640(T) = BS107(T)).

      Frank, Oliver; Pradella, Silke; Rohde, Manfred; Scheuner, Carmen; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Göker, Markus; Petersen, Jörn; Leibniz Institute DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Braunschweig, Germany. (2014-06-15)
      Phaeobacter gallaeciensis CIP 105210(T) (= DSM 26640(T) = BS107(T)) is the type strain of the species Phaeobacter gallaeciensis. The genus Phaeobacter belongs to the marine Roseobacter group (Rhodobacteraceae, Alphaproteobacteria). Phaeobacter species are effective colonizers of marine surfaces, including frequent associations with eukaryotes. Strain BS107(T) was isolated from a rearing of the scallop Pecten maximus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, comprising eight circular replicons with a total of 4,448 genes. In addition to a high number of extrachromosomal replicons, the genome contains six genomic island and three putative prophage regions, as well as a hybrid between a plasmid and a circular phage. Phylogenomic analyses confirm previous results, which indicated that the originally reported P. gallaeciensis type-strain deposit DSM 17395 belongs to P. inhibens and that CIP 105210(T) (= DSM 26640(T)) is the sole genome-sequenced representative of P. gallaeciensis.
    • Genome analyses of the carboxydotrophic sulfate-reducers Desulfotomaculum nigrificans and Desulfotomaculum carboxydivorans and reclassification of Desulfotomaculum caboxydivorans as a later synonym of Desulfotomaculum nigrificans.

      Visser, Michael; Parshina, Sofiya N; Alves, Joana I; Sousa, Diana Z; Pereira, Inês A C; Muyzer, Gerard; Kuever, Jan; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Koehorst, Jasper J; Worm, Petra; et al. (BioMedCentral (BMC), 2014-06-15)
      Desulfotomaculum nigrificans and D. carboxydivorans are moderately thermophilic members of the polyphyletic spore-forming genus Desulfotomaculum in the family Peptococcaceae. They are phylogenetically very closely related and belong to 'subgroup a' of the Desulfotomaculum cluster 1. D. nigrificans and D. carboxydivorans have a similar growth substrate spectrum; they can grow with glucose and fructose as electron donors in the presence of sulfate. Additionally, both species are able to ferment fructose, although fermentation of glucose is only reported for D. carboxydivorans. D. nigrificans is able to grow with 20% carbon monoxide (CO) coupled to sulfate reduction, while D. carboxydivorans can grow at 100% CO with and without sulfate. Hydrogen is produced during growth with CO by D. carboxydivorans. Here we present a summary of the features of D. nigrificans and D. carboxydivorans together with the description of the complete genome sequencing and annotation of both strains. Moreover, we compared the genomes of both strains to reveal their differences. This comparison led us to propose a reclassification of D. carboxydivorans as a later heterotypic synonym of D. nigrificans.
    • Genome analysis of Desulfotomaculum gibsoniae strain Groll(T) a highly versatile Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacterium.

      Kuever, Jan; Visser, Michael; Loeffler, Claudia; Boll, Matthias; Worm, Petra; Sousa, Diana Z; Plugge, Caroline M; Schaap, Peter J; Muyzer, Gerard; Pereira, Ines A C; et al. (2014-06-15)
      Desulfotomaculum gibsoniae is a mesophilic member of the polyphyletic spore-forming genus Desulfotomaculum within the family Peptococcaceae. This bacterium was isolated from a freshwater ditch and is of interest because it can grow with a large variety of organic substrates, in particular several aromatic compounds, short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids, which are degraded completely to carbon dioxide coupled to the reduction of sulfate. It can grow autotrophically with H2 + CO2 and sulfate and slowly acetogenically with H2 + CO2, formate or methoxylated aromatic compounds in the absence of sulfate. It does not require any vitamins for growth. Here, we describe the features of D. gibsoniae strain Groll(T) together with the genome sequence and annotation. The chromosome has 4,855,529 bp organized in one circular contig and is the largest genome of all sequenced Desulfotomaculum spp. to date. A total of 4,666 candidate protein-encoding genes and 96 RNA genes were identified. Genes of the acetyl-CoA pathway, possibly involved in heterotrophic growth and in CO2 fixation during autotrophic growth, are present. The genome contains a large set of genes for the anaerobic transformation and degradation of aromatic compounds, which are lacking in the other sequenced Desulfotomaculum genomes.
    • Genome sequence and emended description of Leisingera nanhaiensis strain DSM 24252(T) isolated from marine sediment.

      Breider, Sven; Teshima, Hazuki; Petersen, Jörn; Chertkov, Olga; Dalingault, Hajnalka; Chen, Amy; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Lapidus, Alla; Goodwin, Lynne A; et al. (2014-06-15)
      Leisingera nanhaiensis DSM 24252(T) is a Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped marine Alphaproteobacterium, isolated from sandy marine sediments. Here we present the non-contiguous genome sequence and annotation together with a summary of the organism's phenotypic features. The 4,948,550 bp long genome with its 4,832 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes consists of one chromosome and six extrachromosomal elements with lengths of 236 kb, 92 kb, 61 kb, 58 kb, 56 kb, and 35 kb, respectively. The analysis of the genome showed that DSM 24252(T) possesses all genes necessary for dissimilatory nitrite reduction, and the strain was shown to be facultatively anaerobic, a deviation from the original description that calls for an emendation of the species. Also present in the genome are genes coding for a putative prophage, for gene-transfer agents and for the utilization of methylated amines. Phylogenetic analysis and intergenomic distances indicate that L. nanhaiensis might not belong to the genus Leisingera.
    • Genome sequence of Phaeobacter caeruleus type strain (DSM 24564(T)), a surface-associated member of the marine Roseobacter clade.

      Beyersmann, Paul G; Chertkov, Olga; Petersen, Jörn; Fiebig, Anne; Chen, Amy; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Lapidus, Alla; Goodwin, Lynne A; Chain, Patrick; et al. (2013-07-30)
      In 2009 Phaeobacter caeruleus was described as a novel species affiliated with the marine Roseobacter clade, which, in turn, belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria. The genus Phaeobacter is well known for members that produce various secondary metabolites. Here we report of putative quorum sensing systems, based on the finding of six N-acyl-homoserine lactone synthetases, and show that the blue color of P. caeruleus is probably due to the production of the secondary metabolite indigoidine. Therefore, P. caeruleus might have inhibitory effects on other bacteria. In this study the genome of the type strain DSM 24564(T) was sequenced, annotated and characterized. The 5,344,419 bp long genome with its seven plasmids contains 5,227 protein-coding genes (3,904 with a predicted function) and 108 RNA genes.
    • Genome sequence of Phaeobacter daeponensis type strain (DSM 23529(T)), a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from marine sediment, and emendation of Phaeobacter daeponensis.

      Dogs, Marco; Teshima, Hazuki; Petersen, Jörn; Fiebig, Anne; Chertkov, Olga; Dalingault, Hajnalka; Chen, Amy; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne A; Chain, Patrick; et al. (2013-10-16)
      TF-218(T) is the type strain of the species Phaeobacter daeponensis Yoon et al. 2007, a facultatively anaerobic Phaeobacter species isolated from tidal flats. Here we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of this bacterium together with previously unreported aspects of its phenotype. We analyzed the genome for genes involved in secondary metabolite production and its anaerobic lifestyle, which have also been described for its closest relative Phaeobacter caeruleus. The 4,642,596 bp long genome of strain TF-218(T) contains 4,310 protein-coding genes and 78 RNA genes including four rRNA operons and consists of five replicons: one chromosome and four extrachromosomal elements with sizes of 276 kb, 174 kb, 117 kb and 90 kb. Genome analysis showed that TF-218(T) possesses all of the genes for indigoidine biosynthesis, and on specific media the strain showed a blue pigmentation. We also found genes for dissimilatory nitrate reduction, gene-transfer agents, NRPS/ PKS genes and signaling systems homologous to the LuxR/I system.
    • Genome sequence of the free-living aerobic spirochete Turneriella parva type strain (H(T)), and emendation of the species Turneriella parva.

      Stackebrandt, Erko; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A; et al. (2013)
      Turneriella parva Levett et al. 2005 is the only species of the genus Turneriella which was established as a result of the reclassification of Leptospira parva Hovind-Hougen et al. 1982. Together with Leptonema and Leptospira, Turneriella constitutes the family Leptospiraceae, within the order Spirochaetales. Here we describe the features of this free-living aerobic spirochete together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the genus Turneriella and the 13(th) member of the family Leptospiraceae for which a complete or draft genome sequence is now available. The 4,409,302 bp long genome with its 4,169 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes is part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • Genome sequence of the mud-dwelling archaeon Methanoplanus limicola type strain (DSM 2279(T)), reclassification of Methanoplanus petrolearius as Methanolacinia petrolearia and emended descriptions of the genera Methanoplanus and Methanolacinia.

      Göker, Markus; Lu, Megan; Fiebig, Anne; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Tice, Hope; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; et al. (2014-06-15)
      Methanoplanus limicola Wildgruber et al. 1984 is a mesophilic methanogen that was isolated from a swamp composed of drilling waste near Naples, Italy, shortly after the Archaea were recognized as a separate domain of life. Methanoplanus is the type genus in the family Methanoplanaceae, a taxon that felt into disuse since modern 16S rRNA gene sequences-based taxonomy was established. Methanoplanus is now placed within the Methanomicrobiaceae, a family that is so far poorly characterized at the genome level. The only other type strain of the genus with a sequenced genome, Methanoplanus petrolearius SEBR 4847(T), turned out to be misclassified and required reclassification to Methanolacinia. Both, Methanoplanus and Methanolacinia, needed taxonomic emendations due to a significant deviation of the G+C content of their genomes from previously published (pre-genome-sequence era) values. Until now genome sequences were published for only four of the 33 species with validly published names in the Methanomicrobiaceae. Here we describe the features of M. limicola, together with the improved-high-quality draft genome sequence and annotation of the type strain, M3(T). The 3,200,946 bp long chromosome (permanent draft sequence) with its 3,064 protein-coding and 65 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and Archaea project.
    • Genome sequence of the phylogenetically isolated spirochete Leptonema illini type strain (3055(T)).

      Huntemann, Marcel; Stackebrandt, Erko; Held, Brittany; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A; et al. (2013)
      Leptonema illini Hovind-Hougen 1979 is the type species of the genus Leptonema, family Leptospiraceae, phylum Spirochaetes. Organisms of this family have a Gram-negative-like cell envelope consisting of a cytoplasmic membrane and an outer membrane. The peptidoglycan layer is associated with the cytoplasmic rather than the outer membrane. The two flagella of members of Leptospiraceae extend from the cytoplasmic membrane at the ends of the bacteria into the periplasmic space and are necessary for their motility. Here we describe the features of the L. illini type strain, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first genome sequence (finished at the level of Improved High Quality Draft) to be reported from of a member of the genus Leptonema and a representative of the third genus of the family Leptospiraceae for which complete or draft genome sequences are now available. The three scaffolds of the 4,522,760 bp draft genome sequence reported here, and its 4,230 protein-coding and 47 RNA genes are part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • Genome sequence of the Roseovarius mucosus type strain (DSM 17069(T)), a bacteriochlorophyll a-containing representative of the marine Roseobacter group isolated from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii.

      Riedel, Thomas; Spring, Stefan; Fiebig, Anne; Scheuner, Carmen; Petersen, Jörn; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2015)
      Roseovarius mucosus Biebl et al. 2005 is a bacteriochlorophyll a-producing representative of the marine Roseobacter group within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae, which was isolated from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The marine Roseobacter group was found to be abundant in the ocean and plays an important role for global and biogeochemical processes. Here we describe the features of the R. mucosus strain DFL-24(T) together with its genome sequence and annotation generated from a culture of DSM 17069(T). The 4,247,724 bp containing genome sequence encodes 4,194 protein-coding genes and 57 RNA genes. In addition to the presence of four plasmids, genome analysis revealed the presence of genes associated with host colonization, DMSP utilization, cytotoxins, and quorum sensing that could play a role in the interrelationship of R. mucosus with the dinoflagellate A. ostenfeldii and other marine organisms. Furthermore, the genome encodes genes associated with mixotrophic growth, where both reduced inorganic compounds for lithotrophic growth and a photoheterotrophic lifestyle using light as additional energy source could be used.
    • Genome sequence of the thermophilic fresh-water bacterium Spirochaeta caldaria type strain (H1(T)), reclassification of Spirochaeta caldaria, Spirochaeta stenostrepta, and Spirochaeta zuelzerae in the genus Treponema as Treponema caldaria comb. nov., Treponema stenostrepta comb. nov., and Treponema zuelzerae comb. nov., and emendation of the genus Treponema.

      Abt, Birte; Göker, Markus; Scheuner, Carmen; Han, Cliff; Lu, Megan; Misra, Monica; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; et al. (2013-04-15)
      Spirochaeta caldaria Pohlschroeder et al. 1995 is an obligately anaerobic, spiral-shaped bacterium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain, H1(T), was isolated in 1990 from cyanobacterial mat samples collected at a freshwater hot spring in Oregon, USA, and is of interest because it enhances the degradation of cellulose when grown in co-culture with Clostridium thermocellum. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for S. caldaria based on phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA sequences and whole genomes, and propose the reclassification of S. caldaria and two other Spirochaeta species as members of the emended genus Treponema. Whereas genera such as Borrelia and Sphaerochaeta possess well-distinguished genomic features related to their divergent lifestyles, the physiological and functional genomic characteristics of Spirochaeta and Treponema appear to be intermixed and are of little taxonomic value. The 3,239,340 bp long genome of strain H1(T) with its 2,869 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • Genome sequence of the Thermotoga thermarum type strain (LA3(T)) from an African solfataric spring.

      Göker, Markus; Spring, Stefan; Scheuner, Carmen; Anderson, Iain; Zeytun, Ahmet; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; et al. (2014-06-15)
      Thermotoga thermarum Windberger et al. 1989 is a member to the genomically well characterized genus Thermotoga in the phylum 'Thermotogae'. T. thermarum is of interest for its origin from a continental solfataric spring vs. predominantly marine oil reservoirs of other members of the genus. The genome of strain LA3T also provides fresh data for the phylogenomic positioning of the (hyper-)thermophilic bacteria. T. thermarum strain LA3(T) is the fourth sequenced genome of a type strain from the genus Thermotoga, and the sixth in the family Thermotogaceae to be formally described in a publication. Phylogenetic analyses do not reveal significant discrepancies between the current classification of the group, 16S rRNA gene data and whole-genome sequences. Nevertheless, T. thermarum significantly differs from other Thermotoga species regarding its iron-sulfur cluster synthesis, as it contains only a minimal set of the necessary proteins. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,039,943 bp long chromosome with its 2,015 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • High quality draft genome of Nakamurella lactea type strain, a rock actinobacterium, and emended description of Nakamurella lactea.

      Nouioui, Imen; Göker, Markus; Carro, Lorena; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Rohde, M; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7., 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017)
      Nakamurella lactea DLS-10(T), isolated from rock in Korea, is one of the four type strains of the genus Nakamurella. In this study, we describe the high quality draft genome of N. lactea DLS-10(T) and its annotation. A summary of phenotypic data collected from previously published studies was also included. The genome of strain DLS-10(T) presents a size of 5.82 Mpb, 5100 protein coding genes, and a C + G content of 68.9%. Based on the genome analysis, emended description of N. lactea in terms of G + C content was also proposed.