• Novel drug targets in cell wall biosynthesis exploited by gene disruption in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

      Elamin, Ayssar A; Steinicke, Susanne; Oehlmann, Wulf; Braun, Yvonne; Wanas, Hanaa; Shuralev, Eduard A; Huck, Carmen; Maringer, Marko; Rohde, M; Singh, Mahavir; et al. (2017)
      For clinicians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nightmare pathogen that is one of the top three causes of opportunistic human infections. Therapy of P. aeruginosa infections is complicated due to its natural high intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. Active efflux and decreased uptake of drugs due to cell wall/membrane permeability appear to be important issues in the acquired antibiotic tolerance mechanisms. Bacterial cell wall biosynthesis enzymes have been shown to be essential for pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria. However, the role of these targets in virulence has not been identified in P. aeruginosa. Here, we report knockout (k.o) mutants of six cell wall biosynthesis targets (murA, PA4450; murD, PA4414; murF, PA4416; ppiB, PA1793; rmlA, PA5163; waaA, PA4988) in P. aeruginosa PAO1, and characterized these in order to find out whether these genes and their products contribute to pathogenicity and virulence of P. aeruginosa. Except waaA k.o, deletion of cell wall biosynthesis targets significantly reduced growth rate in minimal medium compared to the parent strain. The k.o mutants showed exciting changes in cell morphology and colonial architectures. Remarkably, ΔmurF cells became grossly enlarged. Moreover, the mutants were also attenuated in vivo in a mouse infection model except ΔmurF and ΔwaaA and proved to be more sensitive to macrophage-mediated killing than the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the deletion of the murA gene resulted in loss of virulence activity in mice, and the virulence was restored in a plant model by unknown mechanism. This study demonstrates that cell wall targets contribute significantly to intracellular survival, in vivo growth, and pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa. In conclusion, these findings establish a link between cell wall targets and virulence of P. aeruginosa and thus may lead to development of novel drugs for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infection.
    • Promicromonospora kermanensis sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from soil.

      Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Rohde, M; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr.7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-02)
      A novel strain belonging to the genus Promicromonospora, designated HM 533T, was isolated from soil in Kerman Province, Iran. It produced long and branched hyphae on ISP 2 medium that developed into a large number of irregular-shaped spores. It showed optimal growth at 25-30 °C and pH 5.0-8.0 with 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl. The peptidoglycan type of strain HM 533T was A4α l-Lys-l-Ala-d-Glu. Whole-cell hydrolysates of strain HM 533T contained the sugars ribose, glucose and galactose. The main phospholipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, two unknown glycolipids and an unknown phospholipid. MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H2) were the predominant menaquinones. The fatty acids pattern was mainly composed of the saturated branched-chain acids anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the highest pairwise sequence identity (99.5-97.1 %) with the members of the genus Promicromonospora. Based on phenotypic and genotypic features, strain HM 533T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Promicromonospora, for which the name Promicromonospora kermanensis is proposed with strain HM 533T (=DSM 45485T=UTMC 00533T=CECT 8709T) as the type strain.