• Characterization of the first cultured representative of Verrucomicrobia subdivision 5 indicates the proposal of a novel phylum.

      Spring, Stefan; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Rohde, M; Tindall, Brian J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2016)
      The recently isolated strain L21-Fru-ABTrepresents moderately halophilic, obligately anaerobic and saccharolytic bacteria that thrive in the suboxic transition zones of hypersaline microbial mats. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA genes, RpoB proteins and gene content indicated that strain L21-Fru-ABTrepresents a novel species and genus affiliated with a distinct phylum-level lineage originally designated Verrucomicrobia subdivision 5. A survey of environmental 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that members of this newly recognized phylum are wide-spread and ecologically important in various anoxic environments ranging from hypersaline sediments to wastewater and the intestine of animals. Characteristic phenotypic traits of the novel strain included the formation of extracellular polymeric substances, a Gram-negative cell wall containing peptidoglycan and the absence of odd-numbered cellular fatty acids. Unusual metabolic features deduced from analysis of the genome sequence were the production of sucrose as osmoprotectant, an atypical glycolytic pathway lacking pyruvate kinase and the synthesis of isoprenoids via mevalonate. On the basis of the analyses of phenotypic, genomic and environmental data, it is proposed that strain L21-Fru-ABTand related bacteria are specifically adapted to the utilization of sulfated glycopolymers produced in microbial mats or biofilms.
    • Novel members of the family Micromonosporaceae, Rugosimonospora acidiphila gen. nov., sp. nov. and Rugosimonospora africana sp. nov.

      Monciardini, Paolo; Cavaletti, Linda; Ranghetti, Anna; Schumann, Peter; Rohde, Manfred; Bamonte, Ruggiero; Sosio, Margherita; Mezzelani, Alessandra; Donadio, Stefano; Vicuron Pharmaceuticals, 21040 Gerenzano, Italy. paolo.monciardini@ktedogen.com (2009-11)
      Two novel Gram-positive-staining, acidophilic strains were isolated from soil samples. Both show typical features of filamentous actinomycetes. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strains are members of the family Micromonosporaceae. The two strains contain hydroxydiaminopimelic acid, glycine, alanine and glutamic acid in the peptidoglycan. Fatty acid profiles clearly differentiate the two strains: cyclohexyl C(17 : 0), i-C(16 : 0) and ai-C(17 : 0) are predominant in Delta1(T), while the major components for Delta3(T) are ai-C(17 : 0) and i-C(16 : 0). The two strains also differ in their major menaquinones, MK-9(H(8), H(4), H(6)) for Delta1(T) and MK-9(H(8), H(6)) for Delta3(T), and in phospholipid patterns; Delta1(T) displays phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, methyl phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown aminophospholipid, while Delta3(T) also contains minor amounts of several unknown phospholipids in addition to these phospholipids. The whole-cell sugars of both strains are galactose, arabinose and xylose. The G+C content of the DNA is 72.7 mol% for Delta1(T) and 71.9 mol% for Delta3(T). On the basis of chemotaxonomic, physiological and phylogenetic data, we propose Rugosimonospora gen. nov. to accommodate the two strains, with the description of Rugosimonospora acidiphila gen. nov., sp. nov. (the type species; type strain Delta1(T) =DSM 45227(T) =NBRC 104874(T)) and Rugosimonospora africana sp. nov. (type strain Delta3(T) =DSM 45228(T) =NBRC 104875(T)).