• Additions to the genus Gimesia: description of Gimesia alba sp. nov., Gimesia algae sp. nov., Gimesia aquarii sp. nov., Gimesia aquatilis sp. nov., Gimesia fumaroli sp. nov. and Gimesia panareensis sp. nov., isolated from aquatic habitats of the Northern Hemisphere.

      Wiegand, Sandra; Jogler, Mareike; Boedeker, Christian; Heuer, Anja; Rast, Patrick; Peeters, Stijn H; Jetten, Mike S M; Kaster, Anne-Kristin; Rohde, Manfred; Kallscheuer, Nicolai; et al. (Springer, 2020-11-24)
      Thirteen novel planctomycetal strains were isolated from five different aquatic sampling locations. These comprise the hydrothermal vent system close to Panarea Island (Italy), a biofilm on the surface of kelp at Monterey Bay (CA, USA), sediment and algae on Mallorca Island (Spain) and Helgoland Island (Germany), as well as a seawater aquarium in Braunschweig, Germany. All strains were shown to belong to the genus Gimesia. Their genomes cover a size range from 7.22 to 8.29 Mb and have a G+C content between 45.1 and 53.7%. All strains are mesophilic (Topt 26-33 °C) with generation times between 12 and 32 h. Analysis of fatty acids yielded palmitic acid (16:0) and a fatty acid with the equivalent chain length of 15.817 as major compounds. While five of the novel strains belong to the already described species Gimesia maris and Gimesia chilikensis, the other strains belong to novel species, for which we propose the names Gimesia alba (type strain Pan241wT = DSM 100744T = LMG 31345T = CECT 9841T = VKM B-3430T), Gimesia algae (type strain Pan161T = CECT 30192T = STH00943T = LMG 29130T), Gimesia aquarii (type strain V144T = DSM 101710T = VKM B-3433T), Gimesia fumaroli (type strain Enr17T = DSM 100710T = VKM B-3429T) and Gimesia panareensis (type strain Enr10T = DSM 100416T = LMG 29082T). STH numbers refer to the Jena Microbial Resource Collection (JMRC).
    • Aureliella helgolandensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel Planctomycete isolated from a jellyfish at the shore of the island Helgoland.

      Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Wiegand, Sandra; Boedeker, Christian; Peeters, Stijn H; Jogler, Mareike; Rast, Patrick; Heuer, Anja; Jetten, Mike S M; Rohde, Manfred; Jogler, Christian; et al. (Springer, 2020-03-27)
      A novel planctomycetal strain, designated Q31aT, was isolated from a jellyfish at the shore of the island Helgoland in the North Sea. The strain forms lucid white colonies on solid medium and displays typical characteristics of planctomycetal strains, such as division by budding, formation of rosettes, presence of crateriform structures, extracellular matrix or fibre and a holdfast structure. Q31aT is mesophilic (temperature optimum 27 °C), neutrophilic (pH optimum 7.5), aerobic and heterotrophic. A maximal growth rate of 0.017 h- 1 (generation time of 41 h) was observed. Q31aT has a genome size of 8.44 Mb and a G + C content of 55.3%. Phylogenetically, the strain represents a novel genus and species in the recently introduced family Pirellulaceae, order Pirellulales, class Planctomycetia. We propose the name Aureliella helgolandensis gen. nov., sp. nov. for the novel species, represented by Q31aT (= DSM 103537T = LMG 29700T) as the type strain.
    • Caulifigura coniformis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Planctomycetaceae isolated from a red biofilm sampled in a hydrothermal area.

      Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Wiegand, Sandra; Boedeker, Christian; Peeters, Stijn H; Jogler, Mareike; Heuer, Anja; Jetten, Mike S M; Rohde, Manfred; Jogler, Christian; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer, 2020-06-24)
      Pan44T, a novel strain belonging to the phylum Planctomycetes, was isolated from a red biofilm in a hydrothermal area close to the island Panarea in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, Italy. The strain forms white colonies on solid medium and displays the following characteristics: cell division by budding, formation of rosettes, presence of matrix or fimbriae and long stalks. The cell surface has an interesting and characteristic texture made up of triangles and rectangles, which leads to a pine cone-like morphology of the strain. Strain Pan44T is mesophilic (temperature optimum 26 °C), slightly alkaliphilic (pH optimum 8.0), aerobic and heterotrophic. The strain has a genome size of 6.76 Mb with a G + C content of 63.2%. Phylogenetically, the strain is a member of the family Planctomycetaceae, order Planctomycetales, class Planctomycetia. Our analysis supports delineation of strain Pan44T from all known genera in this family, hence, we propose to assign it to a novel species within a novel genus, for which we propose the name Caulifigura coniformis gen. nov., sp. nov., represented by Pan44T (DSM 29405T = LMG 29788T) as the type strain.
    • Description of Polystyrenella longa gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from polystyrene particles incubated in the Baltic Sea.

      Peeters, Stijn H; Wiegand, Sandra; Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Jogler, Mareike; Heuer, Anja; Jetten, Mike S M; Boedeker, Christian; Rohde, Manfred; Jogler, Christian; HZI,Helmholtz Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7 , 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer, 2020-04-01)
      Planctomycetes occur in almost all aquatic ecosystems on earth. They have a remarkable cell biology, and members of the orders Planctomycetales and Pirellulales feature cell division by polar budding, perform a lifestyle switch from sessile to motile cells and have an enlarged periplasmic space. Here, we characterise a novel planctomycetal strain, Pla110T, isolated from the surface of polystyrene particles incubated in the Baltic Sea. After phylogenetic analysis, the strain could be placed in the family Planctomycetaceae. Strain Pla110T performs cell division by budding, has crateriform structures and grows in aggregates or rosettes. The strain is a chemoheterotroph, grows under mesophilic and neutrophilic conditions, and exhibited a doubling time of 21 h. Based on our phylogenetic and morphological characterisation, strain Pla110T (DSM 103387T = LMG 29693T) is concluded to represent a novel species belonging to a novel genus, for which we propose the name Polystyrenella longa gen. nov., sp. nov.
    • Maioricimonas rarisocia gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel planctomycete isolated from marine sediments close to Mallorca Island.

      Rivas-Marin, Elena; Wiegand, Sandra; Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Jogler, Mareike; Peeters, Stijn H; Heuer, Anja; Jetten, Mike S M; Boedeker, Christian; Rohde, Manfred; Devos, Damien P; et al. (Springer, 2020-06-25)
      Planctomycetes are ubiquitous bacteria with environmental and biotechnological relevance. Axenic cultures of planctomycetal strains are the basis to analyse their unusual biology and largely uncharacterised metabolism in more detail. Here, we describe strain Mal4T isolated from marine sediments close to Palma de Mallorca, Spain. Strain Mal4T displays common planctomycetal features, such as division by polar budding and the presence of fimbriae and crateriform structures on the cell surface. Cell growth was observed at ranges of 10-39 °C (optimum at 31 °C) and pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum at 7.5). The novel strain shows as pear-shaped cells of 2.0 ± 0.2 × 1.4 ± 0.1 µm and is one of the rare examples of orange colony-forming Planctomycetes. Its genome has a size of 7.7 Mb with a G+C content of 63.4%. Phylogenetically, we conclude that strain Mal4T (= DSM 100296T = LMG 29133T) is the type strain representing the type species of a novel genus, for which we propose the name Maioricimonas rarisocia gen. nov., sp. nov.
    • Rubinisphaera italica sp. nov. isolated from a hydrothermal area in the Tyrrhenian Sea close to the volcanic island Panarea.

      Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Jogler, Mareike; Wiegand, Sandra; Peeters, Stijn H; Heuer, Anja; Boedeker, Christian; Jetten, Mike S M; Rohde, Manfred; Jogler, Christian (Springer, 2019-11-26)
      Planctomycetes is a fascinating phylum of mostly aquatic bacteria, not only due to the environmental importance in global carbon and nitrogen cycles, but also because of a unique cell biology. Their lifestyle and metabolic capabilities are not well explored, which motivated us to study the role of Planctomycetes in biofilms on marine biotic surfaces. Here, we describe the novel strain Pan54T which was isolated from algae in a hydrothermal area close to the volcanic island Panarea in the Tyrrhenian Sea, north of Sicily in Italy. The strain grew best at pH 9.0 and 26 °C and showed typical characteristics of planctomycetal bacteria, e.g. division by polar budding, formation of aggregates and presence of stalks and crateriform structures. Phylogenetically, the strain belongs to the genus Rubinisphaera. Our analysis suggests that Pan54T represents a novel species of this genus, for which we propose the name Rubinisphaera italica sp. nov. We suggest Pan54T (= DSM 29369 = LMG 29789) as the type strain of the novel species.
    • Stieleria varia sp. nov., isolated from wood particles in the Baltic Sea, constitutes a novel species in the family Pirellulaceae within the phylum Planctomycetes.

      Surup, Frank; Wiegand, Sandra; Boedeker, Christian; Heuer, Anja; Peeters, Stijn H; Jogler, Mareike; Jetten, Mike S M; Rohde, Manfred; Jogler, Christian; Kallscheuer, Nicolai; et al. (Springer, 2020-08-14)
      Species belonging to the bacterial phylum Planctomycetes are ubiquitous members of the microbial communities in aquatic environments and are frequently isolated from various biotic and abiotic surfaces in marine and limnic water bodies. Planctomycetes have large genomes of up to 12.4 Mb, follow complex lifestyles and display an uncommon cell biology; features which motivate the investigation of members of this phylum in greater detail. As a contribution to the current collection of axenic cultures of Planctomycetes, we here describe strain Pla52T isolated from wood particles in the Baltic Sea. Phylogenetic analysis places the strain in the family Pirellulaceae and suggests two species of the recently described genus Stieleria as current closest neighbours. Strain Pla52nT shows typical features of members of the class Planctomycetia, including division by polar budding and the presence of crateriform structures. Colonies of strain Pla52nT have a light orange colour, which is an unusual pigmentation compared to the majority of members in the phylum, which show either a pink to red pigmentation or entirely lack pigmentation. Optimal growth of strain Pla52nT at 33 °C and pH 7.5 indicates a mesophilic (i.e. with optimal growth between 20 and 45 °C) and neutrophilic growth profile. The strain is an aerobic heterotroph with motile daughter cells. Its genome has a size of 9.6 Mb and a G + C content of 56.0%. Polyphasic analyses justify delineation of the strain from described species within the genus Stieleria. Therefore, we conclude that strain Pla52nT = LMG 29463T = VKM B-3447T should be classified as the type strain of a novel species, for which we propose the name Stieleria varia sp. nov.
    • Thalassoglobus polymorphus sp. nov., a novel Planctomycete isolated close to a public beach of Mallorca Island.

      Rivas-Marin, Elena; Wiegand, Sandra; Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Jogler, Mareike; Peeters, Stijn H; Heuer, Anja; Jetten, Mike S M; Boedeker, Christian; Rohde, Manfred; Devos, Damien P; et al. (Springer, 2020-06-24)
      Access to axenic cultures is crucial to extend the knowledge of the biology, lifestyle or metabolic capabilities of bacteria from different phyla. The phylum Planctomycetes is an excellent example since its members display an unusual cell biology and complex lifestyles. As a contribution to the current collection of axenic planctomycete cultures, here we describe strain Mal48T isolated from phytoplankton material sampled at the coast of S'Arenal close to Palma de Mallorca (Spain). The isolated strain shows optimal growth at pH 7.0-7.5 and 30 °C and exhibits typical features of Planctomycetes. Cells of the strain are spherical to pear-shaped, divide by polar budding with daughter cells showing the same shape as the mother cell, tend to aggregate, display a stalk and produce matrix or fimbriae. Strain Mal48T showed 95.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the recently described Thalassoglobus neptunius KOR42T. The genome sequence of the novel isolate has a size of 6,357,355 bp with a G+C content of 50.3%. A total of 4874 protein-coding genes, 41 tRNA genes and 2 copies of the 16S rRNA gene are encoded in the genome. Based on phylogenetic, morphological and physiological analyses, we conclude that strain Mal48T (= DSM 100737T = LMG 29019T) should be classified as the type strain of a new species in the genus Thalassoglobus, for which the name Thalassoglobus polymorphus sp. nov. is proposed.
    • Three Planctomycetes isolated from biotic surfaces in the Mediterranean Sea and the Pacific Ocean constitute the novel species Symmachiella dynata gen. nov., sp. nov. and Symmachiella macrocystis sp. nov.

      Salbreiter, Markus; Waqqas, Muhammad; Jogler, Mareike; Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Wiegand, Sandra; Peeters, Stijn H; Heuer, Anja; Jetten, Mike S M; Boedeker, Christian; Rast, Patrick; et al. (Springer, 2020-08-24)
      Planctomycetes is a phylum of environmentally important bacteria, which also receive significant attention due to their fascinating cell biology. Access to axenic Planctomycete cultures is crucial to study cell biological features within this phylum in further detail. In this study, we characterise three novel strains, Mal52T, Pan258 and CA54T, which were isolated close to the coasts of the islands Mallorca (Spain) and Panarea (Italy), and from Monterey Bay, CA, USA. The three isolates show optimal growth at temperatures between 22 and 24 °C and at pH 7.5, divide by polar budding, lack pigmentation and form strong aggregates in liquid culture. Analysis of five phylogenetic markers suggests that the strains constitute two novel species within a novel genus in the family Planctomycetaceae. The strains Mal52T (DSM 101177T = VKM B-3432T) and Pan258 were assigned to the species Symmachiella dynata gen nov., sp. nov., while strain CA54T (DSM 104301T = VKM B-3450T) forms a separate species of the same genus, for which we propose the name Symmachiella macrocystis sp. nov.