• Blastopirellula retiformator sp. nov. isolated from the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent system close to Panarea Island.

      Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Wiegand, Sandra; Heuer, Anja; Rensink, Stephanie; Boersma, Alje S; Jogler, Mareike; Boedeker, Christian; Peeters, Stijn H; Rast, Patrick; Jetten, Mike S M; et al. (2020-01-01)
      Aquatic bacteria belonging to the deep-branching phylum Planctomycetes play a major role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. However, their uncommon morphology and physiology, and their roles and survival on biotic surfaces in marine environments, are only partially understood. Access to axenic cultures of different planctomycetal genera is key to study their complex lifestyles, uncommon cell biology and primary and secondary metabolism in more detail. Here, we describe the characterisation of strain Enr8T isolated from a marine biotic surface in the seawater close to the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent system off Panarea Island, an area with high temperature and pH gradients, and high availability of different sulphur and nitrogen sources resulting in a great microbial diversity. Strain Enr8T showed typical planctomycetal traits such as division by polar budding, aggregate formation and presence of fimbriae and crateriform structures. Growth was observed at ranges of 15-33 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum 7.0) and at NaCl concentrations from 100 to 1200 mM (optimum 350-700 mM). Strain Enr8T forms white colonies on solid medium and white flakes in liquid culture. Its genome has a size of 6.20 Mb and a G + C content of 59.2%. Phylogenetically, the strain belongs to the genus Blastopirellula. We propose the name Blastopirellula retiformator sp. nov. for the novel species, represented by the type strain Enr8T (DSM 100415T = LMG 29081T).
    • Caulifigura coniformis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Planctomycetaceae isolated from a red biofilm sampled in a hydrothermal area.

      Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Wiegand, Sandra; Boedeker, Christian; Peeters, Stijn H; Jogler, Mareike; Heuer, Anja; Jetten, Mike S M; Rohde, Manfred; Jogler, Christian; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer, 2020-06-24)
      Pan44T, a novel strain belonging to the phylum Planctomycetes, was isolated from a red biofilm in a hydrothermal area close to the island Panarea in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, Italy. The strain forms white colonies on solid medium and displays the following characteristics: cell division by budding, formation of rosettes, presence of matrix or fimbriae and long stalks. The cell surface has an interesting and characteristic texture made up of triangles and rectangles, which leads to a pine cone-like morphology of the strain. Strain Pan44T is mesophilic (temperature optimum 26 °C), slightly alkaliphilic (pH optimum 8.0), aerobic and heterotrophic. The strain has a genome size of 6.76 Mb with a G + C content of 63.2%. Phylogenetically, the strain is a member of the family Planctomycetaceae, order Planctomycetales, class Planctomycetia. Our analysis supports delineation of strain Pan44T from all known genera in this family, hence, we propose to assign it to a novel species within a novel genus, for which we propose the name Caulifigura coniformis gen. nov., sp. nov., represented by Pan44T (DSM 29405T = LMG 29788T) as the type strain.
    • Description of the novel planctomycetal genus Bremerella, containing Bremerella volcania sp. nov., isolated from an active volcanic site, and reclassification of Blastopirellula cremea as Bremerella cremea comb. nov.

      Rensink, Stephanie; Wiegand, Sandra; Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Rast, Patrick; Peeters, Stijn H; Heuer, Anja; Boedeker, Christian; Jetten, Mike S M; Rohde, Manfred; Jogler, Mareike; et al. (2020-01-01)
      Planctomycetes are part of the PVC superphylum together with Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae and others. They are budding bacteria with very distinctive characteristics, such as a remarkable morphology and cell biology. Planctomycetes can be found in almost all habitats, and seem to have a preference for marine biotic and abiotic surfaces, on which they frequently occur in biofilm-forming communities. To extend the number of axenic cultures of planctomycetal strains, we isolated Pan97T from a biofilm in a volcanic site close to the Italian island Panarea in the Thyrrhenian Sea. The physiology, genome and morphology of the novel strain were characterised revealing typical planctomycetal characteristics, such as, division by polar budding and presence of crateriform structures. The strain shows pear-shaped cells of 1.5 ± 0.3 µm × 0.8 ± 0.2 µm and forms white- to cream-coloured colonies on solid medium. Strain Pan97T is mesophilic and neutrophilic, since growth was observed  at a pH range of 5.5-9.5 with optimal growth at pH 7.0 and at a temperature range of 15-40 °C with a maximal growth rate at 36 °C. Pan97T has a genome size of 6,496,182 bp with a G + C content of 56.2%. 5264 protein-coding genes were identified, of which 2141 genes (41%) encode hypothetical proteins. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, we suggest that Pan97T (DSM 101992T = LMG 29460T) represents a novel species of a novel genus within the family Planctomycetaceae, for which we propose the name Bremerella gen. nov., with strain Pan97T classified as Bremerella volcania sp. nov. Based on our analysis, we also propose the reclassification of Blastopirellula cremea Lee et al. 2013 as Bremerella cremea comb. nov., as this species is considered to be the type species of the novel genus Bremerella.
    • Rubinisphaera italica sp. nov. isolated from a hydrothermal area in the Tyrrhenian Sea close to the volcanic island Panarea.

      Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Jogler, Mareike; Wiegand, Sandra; Peeters, Stijn H; Heuer, Anja; Boedeker, Christian; Jetten, Mike S M; Rohde, Manfred; Jogler, Christian (Springer, 2019-11-26)
      Planctomycetes is a fascinating phylum of mostly aquatic bacteria, not only due to the environmental importance in global carbon and nitrogen cycles, but also because of a unique cell biology. Their lifestyle and metabolic capabilities are not well explored, which motivated us to study the role of Planctomycetes in biofilms on marine biotic surfaces. Here, we describe the novel strain Pan54T which was isolated from algae in a hydrothermal area close to the volcanic island Panarea in the Tyrrhenian Sea, north of Sicily in Italy. The strain grew best at pH 9.0 and 26 °C and showed typical characteristics of planctomycetal bacteria, e.g. division by polar budding, formation of aggregates and presence of stalks and crateriform structures. Phylogenetically, the strain belongs to the genus Rubinisphaera. Our analysis suggests that Pan54T represents a novel species of this genus, for which we propose the name Rubinisphaera italica sp. nov. We suggest Pan54T (= DSM 29369 = LMG 29789) as the type strain of the novel species.
    • Three Planctomycetes isolated from biotic surfaces in the Mediterranean Sea and the Pacific Ocean constitute the novel species Symmachiella dynata gen. nov., sp. nov. and Symmachiella macrocystis sp. nov.

      Salbreiter, Markus; Waqqas, Muhammad; Jogler, Mareike; Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Wiegand, Sandra; Peeters, Stijn H; Heuer, Anja; Jetten, Mike S M; Boedeker, Christian; Rast, Patrick; et al. (Springer, 2020-08-24)
      Planctomycetes is a phylum of environmentally important bacteria, which also receive significant attention due to their fascinating cell biology. Access to axenic Planctomycete cultures is crucial to study cell biological features within this phylum in further detail. In this study, we characterise three novel strains, Mal52T, Pan258 and CA54T, which were isolated close to the coasts of the islands Mallorca (Spain) and Panarea (Italy), and from Monterey Bay, CA, USA. The three isolates show optimal growth at temperatures between 22 and 24 °C and at pH 7.5, divide by polar budding, lack pigmentation and form strong aggregates in liquid culture. Analysis of five phylogenetic markers suggests that the strains constitute two novel species within a novel genus in the family Planctomycetaceae. The strains Mal52T (DSM 101177T = VKM B-3432T) and Pan258 were assigned to the species Symmachiella dynata gen nov., sp. nov., while strain CA54T (DSM 104301T = VKM B-3450T) forms a separate species of the same genus, for which we propose the name Symmachiella macrocystis sp. nov.