• The Microbiome of Seagrass Leaves Can Be Dominated by Planctomycetes.

      Kohn, Timo; Rast, Patrick; Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Wiegand, Sandra; Boedeker, Christian; Jetten, Mike S M; Jeske, Olga; Vollmers, John; Kaster, Anne-Kristin; Rohde, Manfred; et al. (Frontiers, 2020-07-10)
      Seagrass meadows are ubiquitous, fragile and endangered marine habitats, which serve as fish breeding grounds, stabilize ocean floor substrates, retain nutrients and serve as important carbon sinks, counteracting climate change. In the Mediterranean Sea, seagrass meadows are mostly formed by the slow-growing endemic plant Posidonia oceanica (Neptune grass), which is endangered by global warming and recreational motorboating. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the leaf surface microbiome of P. oceanica. Using amplicon sequencing, we here show that species belonging to the phylum Planctomycetes can dominate the biofilms of young and aged P. oceanica leaves. Application of selective cultivation techniques allowed for the isolation of two novel planctomycetal strains belonging to two yet uncharacterized genera.
    • Still Something to Discover: Novel Insights into Phage Diversity and Taxonomy.

      Korf, Imke H E; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Adriaenssens, Evelien M; Kropinski, Andrew M; Nimtz, Manfred; Rohde, Manfred; van Raaij, Mark J; Wittmann, Johannes; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2019-05-17)
      The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the diversity of Escherichia coli phagesfollowed by enhanced work on taxonomic issues in that field. Therefore, we present the genomiccharacterization and taxonomic classification of 50 bacteriophages against E. coli isolated fromvarious sources, such as manure or sewage. All phages were examined for their host range on a setof different E. coli strains, originating, e.g., from human diagnostic laboratories or poultry farms.Transmission electron microscopy revealed a diversity of morphotypes (70% Myo-, 22% Sipho-, and8% Podoviruses), and genome sequencing resulted in genomes sizes from ~44 to ~370 kb.Annotation and comparison with databases showed similarities in particular to T4- and T5-likephages, but also to less-known groups. Though various phages against E. coli are already describedin literature and databases, we still isolated phages that showed no or only few similarities to otherphages, namely phages Goslar, PTXU04, and KWBSE43-6. Genome-based phylogeny andclassification of the newly isolated phages using VICTOR resulted in the proposal of new generaand led to an enhanced taxonomic classification of E. coli phages.