• Unsaturated Fatty Acids Control Biofilm Formation of and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria.

      Yuyama, Kamila Tomoko; Rohde, Manfred; Molinari, Gabriella; Stadler, Marc; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-11-08)
      Infections involving biofilms are difficult to treat due to increased resistances against antibiotics and the immune system. Hence, there is an urgent demand for novel drugs against biofilm infections. During our search for novel biofilm inhibitors from fungi, we isolated linoleic acid from the ascomycete Hypoxylon fragiforme which showed biofilm inhibition of several bacteria at sub-MIC concentrations. Many fatty acids possess antimicrobial activities, but their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) are high and reports on biofilm interferences are scarce. We demonstrated that not only linoleic acid but several unsaturated long-chain fatty acids inhibited biofilms at sub-MIC concentrations. The antibiofilm activity exerted by long-chain fatty acids was mainly against Gram-positive bacteria, especially against Staphylococcus aureus. Micrographs of treated S. aureus biofilms revealed a reduction in the extracellular polymeric substances, pointing to a possible mode of action of fatty acids on S. aureus biofilms. The fatty acids had a strong species specificity. Poly-unsaturated fatty acids had higher activities than saturated ones, but no obvious rule could be found for the optimal length and desaturation for maximal activity. As free fatty acids are non-toxic and ubiquitous in food, they may offer a novel tool, especially in combination with antibiotics, for the control of biofilm infections.
    • Updates to the recently introduced family Lacipirellulaceae in the phylum Planctomycetes: isolation of strains belonging to the novel genera Aeoliella, Botrimarina, Pirellulimonas and Pseudobythopirellula and the novel species Bythopirellula polymerisocia and Posidoniimonas corsicana.

      Wiegand, Sandra; Jogler, Mareike; Boedeker, Christian; Heuer, Anja; Peeters, Stijn H; Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Jetten, Mike S M; Kaster, Anne-Kristin; Rohde, Manfred; Jogler, Christian; et al. (Springer, 2020-11-05)
      Eight novel strains of the phylum Planctomycetes were isolated from different aquatic habitats. Among these habitats were the hydrothermal vent system close to Panarea Island, a public beach at Mallorca Island, the shore of Costa Brava (Spain), and three sites with brackish water in the Baltic Sea. The genome sizes of the novel strains range from 4.33 to 6.29 Mb with DNA G+C contents between 52.8 and 66.7%. All strains are mesophilic (Topt 24-30 °C) and display generation times between 17 and 94 h. All eight isolates constitute novel species of either already described or novel genera within the family Lacipirellulaceae. Two of the novel species, Posidoniimonas polymericola (type strain Pla123aT = DSM 103020T = LMG 29466T) and Bythopirellula polymerisocia (type strain Pla144T = DSM 104841T = VKM B-3442T), belong to established genera, while the other strains represent the novel genera Aeoliella gen. nov., Botrimarina gen. nov., Pirellulimonas gen. nov. and Pseudobythopirellula gen. nov. Based on our polyphasic analysis, we propose the species Aeoliella mucimassa sp. nov. (type strain Pan181T = DSM 29370T = LMG 31346T = CECT 9840T = VKM B-3426T), Botrimarina colliarenosi sp. nov. (type strain Pla108T = DSM 103355T = LMG 29803T), Botrimarina hoheduenensis sp. nov. (type strain Pla111T = DSM 103485T = STH00945T, Jena Microbial Resource Collection JMRC), Botrimarina mediterranea sp. nov. (type strain Spa11T = DSM 100745T = LMG 31350T = CECT 9852T = VKM B-3431T), Pirellulimonas nuda sp. nov. (type strain Pla175T = DSM 109594T = CECT 9871T = VKM B-3448T) and Pseudobythopirellula maris sp. nov. (type strain Mal64T = DSM 100832T = LMG 29020T).
    • The urinary microbiota of men and women and its changes in women during bacterial vaginosis and antibiotic treatment.

      Gottschick, Cornelia; Deng, Zhi-Luo; Vital, Marius; Masur, Clarissa; Abels, Christoph; Pieper, Dietmar H; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Helmholtz Centre for infection researchGmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-08-14)
      The urinary microbiota is similarly complex as the vaginal and penile microbiota, yet its role as a reservoir for pathogens and for recurrent polymicrobial biofilm diseases like bacterial vaginosis (BV) is not clear.
    • Virulence factor-dependent basolateral invasion of choroid plexus epithelial cells by pathogenic Escherichia coli in vitro.

      Rose, Rebekah; Häuser, Svenja; Stump-Guthier, Carolin; Weiss, Christel; Rohde, M; Kim, Kwang Sik; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Schroten, Horst; Schwerk, Christian; Adam, Rüdiger; et al. (Oxford Academic Press, 2018-11-21)
      Escherichia coli is the most common Gram-negative causative agent of neonatal meningitis and E. coli meningitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Previous research has been carried out with regard to the blood-brain barrier and thereby unveiled an assortment of virulence factors involved in E. coli meningitis. Little, however, is known about the role of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB), in spite of several studies suggesting that the choroid plexus (CP) is a possible entry point for E. coli into the CSF spaces. Here, we used a human CP papilloma (HIBCPP) cell line that was previously established as valid model for the study of the BCSFB. We show that E. coli invades HIBCPP cells in a polar fashion preferentially from the physiologically relevant basolateral side. Moreover, we demonstrate that deletion of outer membrane protein A, ibeA or neuDB genes results in decreased cell infection, while absence of fimH enhances invasion, although causing reduced adhesion to the apical side of HIBCPP cells. Our findings suggest that the BCSFB might constitute an entry point for E. coli into the central nervous system, and HIBCPP cells are a valuable tool for investigating E. coli entry of the BCSFB.
    • Yersinia pseudotuberculosis supports Th17 differentiation and limits de novo regulatory T cell induction by directly interfering with T cell receptor signaling.

      Pasztoi, Maria; Bonifacius, Agnes; Pezoldt, Joern; Kulkarni, Devesha; Niemz, Jana; Yang, Juhao; Teich, René; Hajek, Janina; Pisano, Fabio; Rohde, Manfred; et al. (2017-04-04)
      Adaptive immunity critically contributes to control acute infection with enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis; however, the role of CD4(+) T cell subsets in establishing infection and allowing pathogen persistence remains elusive. Here, we assessed the modulatory capacity of Y. pseudotuberculosis on CD4(+) T cell differentiation. Using in vivo assays, we report that infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in enhanced priming of IL-17-producing T cells (Th17 cells), whereas induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was severely disrupted in gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs), in line with altered frequencies of tolerogenic and proinflammatory dendritic cell (DC) subsets within mLNs. Additionally, by using a DC-free in vitro system, we could demonstrate that Y. pseudotuberculosis can directly modulate T cell receptor (TCR) downstream signaling within naïve CD4(+) T cells and Tregs via injection of effector molecules through the type III secretion system, thereby affecting their functional properties. Importantly, modulation of naïve CD4(+) T cells by Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in an enhanced Th17 differentiation and decreased induction of Foxp3(+) Tregs in vitro. These findings shed light to the adjustment of the Th17-Treg axis in response to acute Y. pseudotuberculosis infection and highlight the direct modulation of CD4(+) T cell subsets by altering their TCR downstream signaling.