HCV Pit Stop at the Lipid Droplet: Refuel Lipids and Put on a Lipoprotein Coat before Exit.
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AbstractThe replication cycle of the liver-tropic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is tightly connected to the host lipid metabolism, during the virus entry, replication, assembly and egress stages, but also while the virus circulates in the bloodstream. This interplay coins viral particle properties, governs viral cell tropism, and facilitates immune evasion. This review summarizes our knowledge of these interactions focusing on the late steps of the virus replication cycle. It builds on our understanding of the cell biology of lipid droplets and the biosynthesis of liver lipoproteins and attempts to explain how HCV hijacks these organelles and pathways to assemble its lipo-viro-particles. In particular, this review describes (i) the mechanisms of viral protein translocation to and from the lipid droplet surface and the orchestration of an interface between replication and assembly complexes, (ii) the importance of the triglyceride mobilization from the lipid droplets for HCV assembly, (iii) the interplay between HCV and the lipoprotein synthesis pathway including the role played by apolipoproteins in virion assembly, and finally (iv) the consequences of these complex virus–host interactions on the virion composition and its biophysical properties. The wealth of data accumulated in the past years on the role of the lipid metabolism in HCV assembly and its imprint on the virion properties will guide vaccine design efforts and reinforce our understanding of the hepatic lipid metabolism in health and disease.
CitationCells. 2019 Mar 12;8(3). pii: cells8030233. doi: 10.3390/cells8030233.
AffiliationTWINCORE, Zentrum für Experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany.
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