• Atypical IκB proteins in immune cell differentiation and function.

      Annemann, Michaela; Plaza-Sirvent, Carlos; Schuster, Marc; Katsoulis-Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kliche, Stefanie; Schraven, Burkhart; Schmitz, Ingo (2016-03)
      The NF-κB/Rel signalling pathway plays a crucial role in numerous biological processes, including innate and adaptive immunity. NF-κB is a family of transcription factors, whose activity is regulated by the inhibitors of NF-κB (IκB). The IκB proteins comprise two distinct groups, the classical (cytoplasmic) and the atypical (nuclear) IκB proteins. Although the cytoplasmic regulation of NF-κB is well characterised, its nuclear regulation mechanisms remain marginally elucidated. However, work from recent years indicated that nuclear IκBs contribute significantly to the modulation of NF-κB-mediated transcription in the immune system. Here, we discuss the role of the atypical IκB proteins Bcl-3, IκBζ, IκBNS, IκBη and IκBL for the regulation of gene expression and effector functions in immune cells.