• Comparative host transcriptome in response to pathogenic fungi identifies common and species-specific transcriptional antifungal host response pathways.

      Bruno, Mariolina; Dewi, Intan M W; Matzaraki, Vicky; Ter Horst, Rob; Pekmezovic, Marina; Rösler, Berenice; Groh, Laszlo; Röring, Rutger J; Kumar, Vinod; Li, Yang; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-12-26)
      Candidiasis, aspergillosis, and mucormycosis cause the majority of nosocomial fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. Using an unbiased transcriptional profiling in PBMCs exposed to the fungal species causing these infections, we found a core host response in healthy individuals that may govern effective fungal clearance: it consists of 156 transcripts, involving canonical and non-canonical immune pathways. Systematic investigation of key steps in antifungal host defense revealed fungal-specific signatures. As previously demonstrated, Candida albicans induced type I and Type II interferon-related pathways. In contrast, central pattern recognition receptor, reactive oxygen species production, and host glycolytic pathways were down-regulated in response to Rhizopus oryzae, which was associated with an ER-stress response. TLR5 was identified to be uniquely regulated by Aspergillus fumigatus and to control cytokine release in response to this fungus. In conclusion, our data reveals the transcriptional profiles induced by C. albicans, A. fumigatus, and R. oryzae, and describes both the common and specific antifungal host responses that could be exploited for novel therapeutic strategies.
    • Polymorphisms within the and Loci Influence the Risk of Developing Invasive Aspergillosis: A Two-Stage Case Control Study in the Context of the aspBIOmics Consortium.

      ánchez-Maldonado, Jose Manuel; Moñiz-Díez, Ana; Rob Ter Horst, Daniele Campa; Cabrera-Serrano, Antonio José; Garrido-Collado, María Del Pilar; Hernández-Mohedo, Fracisca; Fernández-Puerta, Laura; López-Nevot, , Miguel Ángel; Cunha, Ctistina; González-Sierra, Pedro Antonio; et al. (MDPI, 2020-12-23)
      Here, we assessed whether 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the TNFSF4 and MAPKAPK2 loci influence the risk of developing invasive aspergillosis (IA). We conducted a two-stage case control study including 911 high-risk patients diagnosed with hematological malignancies that were ascertained through the aspBIOmics consortium. The meta-analysis of the discovery and replication populations revealed that carriers of the TNFSF4rs7526628T/T genotype had a significantly increased risk of developing IA (p = 0.00022). We also found that carriers of the TNFSF4rs7526628T allele showed decreased serum levels of TNFSF14 protein (p = 0.0027), and that their macrophages had a decreased fungicidal activity (p = 0.048). In addition, we observed that each copy of the MAPKAPK2rs12137965G allele increased the risk of IA by 60% (p = 0.0017), whereas each copy of the MAPKAPK2rs17013271T allele was estimated to decrease the risk of developing the disease (p = 0.0029). Mechanistically, we found that carriers of the risk MAPKAPK2rs12137965G allele showed increased numbers of CD38+IgM-IgD- plasmablasts in blood (p = 0.00086), whereas those harboring two copies of the allele had decreased serum concentrations of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (p = 0.00097). Finally, we also found that carriers of the protective MAPKAPK2rs17013271T allele had decreased numbers of CD27-IgM-IgD- B cells (p = 0.00087) and significantly lower numbers of CD14+ and CD14+CD16- cells (p = 0.00018 and 0.00023). Altogether, these results suggest a role of the TNFSF4 and MAPKAPK2 genes in determining IA risk.