• Glutathione Metabolism Contributes to the Induction of Trained Immunity.

      Ferreira, Anaisa V; Koeken, Valerie A C M; Matzaraki, Vasiliki; Kostidis, Sarantos; Alarcon-Barrera, Juan Carlos; de Bree, L Charlotte J; Moorlag, Simone J C F M; Mourits, Vera P; Novakovic, Boris; Giera, Martin A; et al. (MDPI, 2021-04-21)
      The innate immune system displays heterologous memory characteristics, which are characterized by stronger responses to a secondary challenge. This phenomenon termed trained immunity relies on epigenetic and metabolic rewiring of innate immune cells. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been associated with the trained immunity phenotype, we hypothesized that the increased ROS levels and the main intracellular redox molecule glutathione play a role in the induction of trained immunity. Here we show that pharmacological inhibition of ROS in an in vitro model of trained immunity did not influence cell responsiveness; the modulation of glutathione levels reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human monocytes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in glutathione metabolism were found to be associated with changes in pro-inflammatory cytokine production capacity upon trained immunity. Also, plasma glutathione concentrations were positively associated with ex vivo IL-1β production, a biomarker of trained immunity, produced by monocytes of BCG-vaccinated individuals. In conclusion, glutathione metabolism is involved in the induction of trained immunity, and future studies are warranted to explore its functional consequences in human diseases.