• BCG Vaccination in Humans Elicits Trained Immunity via the Hematopoietic Progenitor Compartment.

      Cirovic, Branko; de Bree, L Charlotte J; Groh, Laszlo; Blok, Bas A; Chan, Joyce; van der Velden, Walter J F M; Bremmers, M E J; van Crevel, Reinout; Händler, Kristian; Picelli, Simone; et al. (Elsevier (Cell Press), 2020-06-09)
      Induction of trained immunity by Bacille-Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination mediates beneficial heterologous effects, but the mechanisms underlying its persistence and magnitude remain elusive. In this study, we show that BCG vaccination in healthy human volunteers induces a persistent transcriptional program connected to myeloid cell development and function within the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) compartment in the bone marrow. We identify hepatic nuclear factor (HNF) family members 1a and b as crucial regulators of this transcriptional shift. These findings are corroborated by higher granulocyte numbers in BCG-vaccinated infants, HNF1 SNP variants that correlate with trained immunity, and elevated serum concentrations of the HNF1 target alpha-1 antitrypsin. Additionally, transcriptomic HSPC remodeling was epigenetically conveyed to peripheral CD14+ monocytes, displaying an activated transcriptional signature three months after BCG vaccination. Taken together, transcriptomic, epigenomic, and functional reprogramming of HSPCs and peripheral monocytes is a hallmark of BCG-induced trained immunity in humans.
    • Severe COVID-19 Is Marked by a Dysregulated Myeloid Cell Compartment.

      Schulte-Schrepping, Jonas; Reusch, Nico; Paclik, Daniela; Baßler, Kevin; Schlickeiser, Stephan; Zhang, Bowen; Krämer, Benjamin; Krammer, Tobias; Brumhard, Sophia; Bonaguro, Lorenzo; et al. (Elsevier /Cell Press), 2020-08-05)
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild to moderate respiratory tract infection, however, a subset of patients progress to severe disease and respiratory failure. The mechanism of protective immunity in mild forms and the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 associated with increased neutrophil counts and dysregulated immune responses remain unclear. In a dual-center, two-cohort study, we combined single-cell RNA-sequencing and single-cell proteomics of whole-blood and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to determine changes in immune cell composition and activation in mild versus severe COVID-19 (242 samples from 109 individuals) over time. HLA-DRhiCD11chi inflammatory monocytes with an interferon-stimulated gene signature were elevated in mild COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 was marked by occurrence of neutrophil precursors, as evidence of emergency myelopoiesis, dysfunctional mature neutrophils, and HLA-DRlo monocytes. Our study provides detailed insights into the systemic immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals profound alterations in the myeloid cell compartment associated with severe COVID-19.