• Antimicrobial resistance in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and bacterial infections in a tertiary center in Northern Germany.

      Hillert, Annika; Schultalbers, Marie; Tergast, Tammo L; Vonberg, Ralf-Peter; Rademacher, Jessica; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Cornberg, Markus; Ziesing, Stefan; Maasoumy, Benjamin; Höner Zu Siederdissen, Christoph; et al. (BMC, 2021-07-20)
      Background and aims: Bacterial infections are common in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and a leading cause of death. Reliable data on antibiotic resistance are required to initiate effective empiric therapy. We here aim to assess the antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria among patients with liver cirrhosis and infection. Methods: Overall, 666 cirrhotic patients admitted to Hannover Medical School between January 2012 and April 2018 with ascites were assessed for bacterial infection. In case of infection, bacteria cultured from microbiological specimens of ascites, blood or urine were identified and analyzed for resistances against common antibiotic agents. Furthermore, analyses compared two periods of time and community-acquired vs. nosocomial infections. Results: In 281 patients with infection, microbiological sampling was performed and culture-positive results were obtained in 56.9%. Multidrug-resistant (MDR)-bacteria were found in 54 patients (19.2%). Gram-positive organisms were more common (n = 141/261, 54.0%) and detected in 116/192 culture-positive infections (60.4%). Comparing infections before and after 2015, a numerical decline for MDR-bacteria (23.8% vs. 15.6%, p = 0.08) was observed with a significant decline in meropenem resistance (34.9% vs. 19.5%, p = 0.03). MDR-bacteria were more frequent in the case of nosocomial infections. Of note, in ascites the majority of the tested bacteria were resistant against ceftriaxone (73.8%) whereas significantly less were resistant against meropenem (27.0%) and vancomycin (25.9%). Conclusions: In our tertiary center, distinct ratios of gram-positive infection with overall low ratios of MDR-bacteria were found. Adequate gram-positive coverage in the empiric therapy should be considered. Carbapenem treatment may be omitted even in nosocomial infection. In contrast, 3rd generation cephalosporins cannot be recommended even in community-acquired infection in our cirrhotic population.
    • Distinct Immune Imprints of Post-Liver Transplantation Hepatitis C Persist Despite Viral Clearance.

      Aregay, Amare; Engel, Bastian; Port, Kerstin; Vondran, Florian W R; Bremer, Birgit; Niehaus, Christian; Khera, Tanvi; Richter, Nicolas; Jaeckel, Elmar; Cornberg, Markus; et al. (Wiley, 2021-02-28)
      Recurrence or de novo infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) after liver transplantation (LT) has been associated with progressive graft hepatitis that can be improved by treatment with novel direct-acting antivirals. Cases of rejection episodes have been described during and after HCV treatment. The evolution of innate and adaptive immune response during and after cure of HCV LT is unknown. We studied 74 protein biomarkers in the plasma of LT patients receiving antiviral therapy. In addition, deep immune phenotyping of both the myeloid and lymphoid immune cell subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was performed. We found that LT patients with active HCV infection displayed distinct alterations of inflammatory protein biomarkers, such as C-X-Cmotif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), caspase 8, C-C motif chemokine 20 (CCL20), CCL19, interferon γ, CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1), interleukin (IL)-18R1, CXCL11, CCL3, IL8, IL12B, tumor necrosis factor-beta, CXCL6, osteoprotegerin, IL10, fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, hepatocyte growth factor, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, neurotrophin-3, CCL4, IL6, tumornecrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9, programmed death ligand 1, IL18, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and enrichment of peripheral immune cell subsets unlike patients without HCV infection who received transplants. Interestingly, patients who cleared HCV after LT did not normalize the altered inflammatory milieu nor did the peripheral immune cell subsets normalize to what would be seen in the absence of HCV recurrence. Overall, these data indicate that HCV-specific imprints on inflammatory analytes and immune cell subsets after LT are not completely normalized by therapy-induced HCV elimination. This is in line with the clinical observation that cure of HCV after LT did not trigger rejection episodes in many patients.
    • HBV-RNA Co-amplification May Influence HBV DNA Viral Load Determination.

      Maasoumy, Benjamin; Geretti, Anna Maria; Frontzek, André; Austin, Harrison; Aretzweiler, Gudrun; Garcia-Álvarez, Monica; Leuchter, Susanne; Simon, Christian O; Marins, Ed G; Canchola, Jesse A; et al. (Wiley, 2020-05-26)
      Despite effective hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA suppression, HBV RNA can circulate in patients receiving nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs). Current assays quantify HBV DNA by either real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which uses DNA polymerase, or transcription-mediated amplification, which uses reverse-transcriptase (RT) and RNA polymerase. We assessed the effect of RT capability on HBV-DNA quantification in samples from three cohorts, including patients with quantified HBV RNA. We compared the HBV-DNA levels by real-time PCR (cobas HBV, Roche 6800/8800; Xpert HBV, Cepheid), transcription-mediated amplification (Aptima HBV, Hologic), and real-time PCR with added RT capability (cobas HBV+RT). In the first cohort (n = 45) followed over 192 weeks of NA therapy, on-treatment HBV-DNA levels were higher with cobas HBV+RT than cobas HBV (mean difference: 0.14 log10 IU/mL). In a second cohort (n = 50) followed over 96 weeks of NA therapy, HBV-DNA viral load was significantly higher with the cobas HBV+RT and Aptima HBV compared with the cobas HBV test at all time points after initiation of NA therapy (mean difference: 0.65-1.16 log10 IU/mL). A clinically significant difference was not detected between the assays at baseline. In a third cohort (n = 53), after a median of 2.2 years of NA therapy, we detected HBV RNA (median 5.6 log10 copies/mL) in 23 patients (43.4%). Median HBV-DNA levels by Aptima HBV were 2.4 versus less than 1 log10 IU/mL in samples with HBV RNA and without HBV RNA, respectively (P = 0.0006). In treated patients with HBV RNA, Aptima HBV measured higher HBV-DNA levels than Xpert HBV and cobas HBV. Conclusion: Tests including an RT step may overestimate HBV DNA, particularly in samples with low viral loads as a result of NA therapy. This overestimation is likely due to amplification of HBV RNA and may have an impact on clinical decisions.
    • The impact of hepatitis B surface antigen on natural killer cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

      Du, Yanqin; Anastasiou, Olympia E; Strunz, Benedikt; Scheuten, Janina; Bremer, Birgit; Kraft, Anke; Kleinsimglinhaus, Karolina; Todt, Daniel; Broering, Ruth; Hardtke-Wolenski, Matthias; et al. (Wiley, 2021-04-01)
      Compared to the healthy controls, a reshaping of NK cell pool towards more CD56bright NK cells was observed during CHB infection. Importantly, NK cells in patients with low HBsAg levels (<100 IU/mL) displayed an activated phenotype with increased expression of activation makers CD38, granzyme B and proliferation marker Ki-67 while presenting with defective functional responses (MIP-1β, CD107a) at the same time. Furthermore, NK cell activation was negatively correlated with patient HBsAg levels while NK function correlated with patient age.
    • Performance of Roche qualitative HEV assay on the cobas 6800 platform for quantitative measurement of HEV RNA.

      Thodou, Viktoria; Bremer, Birgit; Anastasiou, Olympia E; Cornberg, Markus; Maasoumy, Benjamin; Wedemeyer, Heiner; CIIM, Zentrum für individualisierte Infektionsmedizin, Feodor-Lynen-Str.7, 30625 Hannover. (Elsevier, 2020-06-27)
      Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an increasingly recognized cause of acute and chronic hepatitis in high-income countries and is the most frequent cause of acute viral hepatitis in many European countries. Appropriate tools to detect and quantify HEV RNA are needed. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the Roche cobas® HEV assay and compare it with the Fast Track Diagnostics (FTD) Hepatitis E RNA assay. Methods: HEV viral load determination and lower limit of detection (LOD, defined as the lowest amount of viral copies that could be detected in 95 % of repeats) were assessed using a WHO standard dilution panel, testing 240 samples of various concentrations. Reproducibility was tested at three different concentration levels, for different genotypes, and with different sample types (serum, plasma) in 30 samples. Sample stability was analyzed after three freeze/thaw cycles in 25 samples. Results: Cobas HEV assay showed a strong linear relationship between log of HEV WHO dilution series and Ct values over the reportable range from 200-5000 IU/mL HEV RNA copies. The amplification efficiency was higher than 92 %. LOD was 22 IU/mL (95 % CI: 17.4-31.8) and reproducibility tests showed a 100 % nucleic acid test (NAT) reactivity of cobas HEV for WHO dilution series (range 200-5000 IU/mL, n = 90). Cobas HEV assay detected all different HEV genotypes from biobank samples irrespective of the sample type. NAT reactivity of cobas HEV was not affected by three freeze/thaw cycles. Conclusions: Roche cobas HEV assay is a powerful NAT tool in terms of robustness, reproducibility and linearity. It is a feasible alternative for high-volume testing.
    • Pilot Study Using Machine Learning to Identify Immune Profiles for the Prediction of Early Virological Relapse After Stopping Nucleos(t)ide Analogues in HBeAg-Negative CHB.

      Wübbolding, Maximilian; Lopez Alfonso, Juan Carlos; Lin, Chun-Yen; Binder, Sebastian; Falk, Christine; Debarry, Jennifer; Gineste, Paul; Kraft, Anke R M; Chien, Rong-Nan; Maasoumy, Benjamin; et al. (Wiley, 2020-11-05)
      Treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) may be stopped after 1-3 years of hepatitis B virus DNA suppression in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative patients according to Asian Pacific Association for the Study of Liver and European Association for the Study of Liver guidelines. However, virological relapse (VR) occurs in most patients. We aimed to analyze soluble immune markers (SIMs) and use machine learning to identify SIM combinations as predictor for early VR after NA discontinuation. A validation cohort was used to verify the predictive power of the SIM combination. In a post hoc analysis of a prospective, multicenter therapeutic vaccination trial (ABX-203, NCT02249988), hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B core antigen, and 47 SIMs were repeatedly determined before NA was stopped. Forty-three HBeAg-negative patients were included. To detect the highest predictive constellation of host and viral markers, a supervised machine learning approach was used. Data were validated in a different cohort of 49 patients treated with entecavir. VR (hepatitis B virus DNA ≥ 2,000 IU/mL) occurred in 27 patients. The predictive value for VR of single SIMs at the time of NA stop was best for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-17, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/CCL5) with a maximum area under the curve of 0.65. Hepatitis B core antigen had a higher predictive power than hepatitis B surface antigen but lower than the SIMs. A supervised machine-learning algorithm allowed a remarkable improvement of early relapse prediction in patients treated with entecavir. The combination of IL-2, monokine induced by interferon γ (MIG)/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 9 (CCL9), RANTES/CCL5, stem cell factor (SCF), and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) was reliable in predicting VR (0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.5-1.0) and showed viable results in the validation cohort (0.63; 0.1-0.99). Host immune markers such as SIMs appear to be underestimated in guiding treatment cessation in HBeAg-negative patients. Machine learning can help find predictive SIM patterns that allow a precise identification of patients particularly suitable for NA cessation.
    • Reaching the Unreachable: Strategies for HCV Eradication in Patients With Refractory Opioid Addiction-A Real-world Experience.

      Sandmann, Lisa; Deppe, Julian; Beier, Christoph; Ohlendorf, Valerie; Schneider, Julia; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Wedegärtner, Felix; Cornberg, Markus; Maasoumy, Benjamin; CiiM, Zentrum für individualisierte Infektionsmedizin, Feodor-Lynen-Str.7, 30625 Hannover. (2021-06-17)
    • S3-Leitlinie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Gastroenterologie, Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten (DGVS) zur Prophylaxe, Diagnostik und Therapie der Hepatitis-B-Virusinfektion – (AWMF-Register-Nr. 021-11)

      Cornberg, Markus; Sandmann, Lisa; Protzer, Ulrike; Niederau, Claus; Tacke, Frank; Berg, Thomas; Glebe, Dieter; Jilg, Wolfgang; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Wirth, Stefan; et al. (Thieme, 2021-07-12)
      [No abstract available]
    • Significant compartment-specific impact of different RNA extraction methods and PCR assays on the sensitivity of hepatitis E virus detection.

      Behrendt, Patrick; Bremer, Birgit; Todt, Daniel; Steinmann, Eike; Manns, Michael Peter; Cornberg, Markus; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Maasoumy, Benjamin; CiiM, Zentrum für individualisierte Infektionsmedizin, Feodor-Lynen-Str.7, 30625 Hannover. (Wiley, 2021-03-22)
      We determined the limit of detection of the RealStar HEV RT-PCR V2.0 Kit (altona Diagnostics, RS) utilizing 3 RNA extraction methods (COBAS® AmpliPrep Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit, TNAi Roche; MagNA Pure 96 DNA, Viral NA SV Kit, MgP; QIAamp Viral RNA mini Kit Qiagen; VRK) in plasma and stool. The most sensitive method was evaluated in a total of 307 longitudinal samples of patients with HEV infection (acute = 18/chronic = 36) and compared to results with the former diagnostic standard of our centre (TNAi/FastTrack Diagnostic; FTD).