• Integration of metabolomics, genomics, and immune phenotypes reveals the causal roles of metabolites in disease.

      Chu, Xiaojing; Jaeger, Martin; Beumer, Joep; Bakker, Olivier B; Aguirre-Gamboa, Raul; Oosting, Marije; Smeekens, Sanne P; Moorlag, Simone; Mourits, Vera P; Koeken, Valerie A C M; et al. (BMC, 2021-07-06)
      Background: Recent studies highlight the role of metabolites in immune diseases, but it remains unknown how much of this effect is driven by genetic and non-genetic host factors. Result: We systematically investigate circulating metabolites in a cohort of 500 healthy subjects (500FG) in whom immune function and activity are deeply measured and whose genetics are profiled. Our data reveal that several major metabolic pathways, including the alanine/glutamate pathway and the arachidonic acid pathway, have a strong impact on cytokine production in response to ex vivo stimulation. We also examine the genetic regulation of metabolites associated with immune phenotypes through genome-wide association analysis and identify 29 significant loci, including eight novel independent loci. Of these, one locus (rs174584-FADS2) associated with arachidonic acid metabolism is causally associated with Crohn's disease, suggesting it is a potential therapeutic target. Conclusion: This study provides a comprehensive map of the integration between the blood metabolome and immune phenotypes, reveals novel genetic factors that regulate blood metabolite concentrations, and proposes an integrative approach for identifying new disease treatment targets.
    • Systematic Prioritization of Candidate Genes in Disease Loci Identifies as a Master Regulator of IFNγ Signaling in Celiac Disease.

      van der Graaf, Adriaan; Zorro, Maria M; Claringbould, Annique; Võsa, Urmo; Aguirre-Gamboa, Raúl; Li, Chan; Mooiweer, Joram; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Borek, Zuzanna; Koning, Frits; et al. (Frontiers, 2021-01-25)
      Celiac disease (CeD) is a complex T cell-mediated enteropathy induced by gluten. Although genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genomic regions associated with CeD, it is difficult to accurately pinpoint which genes in these loci are most likely to cause CeD. We used four different in silico approaches-Mendelian randomization inverse variance weighting, COLOC, LD overlap, and DEPICT-to integrate information gathered from a large transcriptomics dataset. This identified 118 prioritized genes across 50 CeD-associated regions. Co-expression and pathway analysis of these genes indicated an association with adaptive and innate cytokine signaling and T cell activation pathways. Fifty-one of these genes are targets of known drug compounds or likely druggable genes, suggesting that our methods can be used to pinpoint potential therapeutic targets. In addition, we detected 172 gene combinations that were affected by our CeD-prioritized genes in trans. Notably, 41 of these trans-mediated genes appear to be under control of one master regulator, TRAF-type zinc finger domain containing 1 (TRAFD1), and were found to be involved in interferon (IFN)γ signaling and MHC I antigen processing/presentation. Finally, we performed in vitro experiments in a human monocytic cell line that validated the role of TRAFD1 as an immune regulator acting in trans. Our strategy confirmed the role of adaptive immunity in CeD and revealed a genetic link between CeD and IFNγ signaling as well as with MHC I antigen processing, both major players of immune activation and CeD pathogenesis.
    • Tissue alarmins and adaptive cytokine induce dynamic and distinct transcriptional responses in tissue-resident intraepithelial cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

      Zorro, Maria Magdalena; Aguirre-Gamboa, Raul; Mayassi, Toufic; Ciszewski, Cezary; Barisani, Donatella; Hu, Shixian; Weersma, Rinse K; Withoff, Sebo; Li, Yang; Wijmenga, Cisca; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-02-04)
      The respective effects of tissue alarmins interleukin (IL)-15 and interferon beta (IFNβ), and IL-21 produced by T cells on the reprogramming of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that cause tissue destruction in celiac disease is poorly understood. Transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling of primary intestinal CTLs showed massive and distinct temporal transcriptional changes in response to tissue alarmins, while the impact of IL-21 was limited. Only anti-viral pathways were induced in response to all the three stimuli, albeit with differences in dynamics and strength. Moreover, changes in gene expression were primarily independent of changes in H3K27ac, suggesting that other regulatory mechanisms drive the robust transcriptional response. Finally, we found that IL-15/IFNβ/IL-21 transcriptional signatures could be linked to transcriptional alterations in risk loci for complex immune diseases. Together these results provide new insights into molecular mechanisms that fuel the activation of CTLs under conditions that emulate the inflammatory environment in patients with autoimmune diseases.