Cast your vote
You can rate an item by clicking the amount of stars they wish to award to this item.
When enough users have cast their vote on this item, the average rating will also be shown.
Your vote was cast
Thank you for your feedback
Thank you for your feedback
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractCRISPR-Cas immune systems in bacteria and archaea record prior infections as spacers within each system's CRISPR arrays. Spacers are normally derived from invasive genetic material and direct the immune system to complementary targets as part of future infections. However, not all spacers appear to be derived from foreign genetic material and instead can originate from the host genome. Their presence poses a paradox, as self-targeting spacers would be expected to induce an autoimmune response and cell death. In this review, we discuss the known frequency of self-targeting spacers in natural CRISPR-Cas systems, how these spacers can be incorporated into CRISPR arrays, and how the host can evade lethal attack. We also discuss how self-targeting spacers can become the basis for alternative functions performed by CRISPR-Cas systems that extend beyond adaptive immunity. Overall, the acquisition of genome-targeting spacers poses a substantial risk but can aid in the host's evolution and potentially lead to or support new functionalities.
CitationFront Microbiol. 2020 Jan 22;10:3078. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.03078. eCollection 2019.
AffiliationHIRI, Helmholtz-Institut für RNA-basierte Infektionsforschung, Josef-Shneider Strasse 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany.
JournalFrontiers in microbiology
The following license files are associated with this item:
- Creative Commons
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International
- Friendly Fire: Biological Functions and Consequences of Chromosomal Targeting by CRISPR-Cas Systems.
- Authors: Heussler GE, O'Toole GA
- Issue date: 2016 May 15
- Bioinformatics Identification of Anti-CRISPR Loci by Using Homology, Guilt-by-Association, and CRISPR Self-Targeting Spacer Approaches.
- Authors: Yin Y, Yang B, Entwistle S
- Issue date: 2019 Sep 10
- The CRISPR Spacer Space Is Dominated by Sequences from Species-Specific Mobilomes.
- Authors: Shmakov SA, Sitnik V, Makarova KS, Wolf YI, Severinov KV, Koonin EV
- Issue date: 2017 Sep 19
- Cooperation between Different CRISPR-Cas Types Enables Adaptation in an RNA-Targeting System.
- Authors: Hoikkala V, Ravantti J, Díez-Villaseñor C, Tiirola M, Conrad RA, McBride MJ, Moineau S, Sundberg LR
- Issue date: 2021 Mar 30
- On the Origin of Reverse Transcriptase-Using CRISPR-Cas Systems and Their Hyperdiverse, Enigmatic Spacer Repertoires.
- Authors: Silas S, Makarova KS, Shmakov S, Páez-Espino D, Mohr G, Liu Y, Davison M, Roux S, Krishnamurthy SR, Fu BXH, Hansen LL, Wang D, Sullivan MB, Millard A, Clokie MR, Bhaya D, Lambowitz AM, Kyrpides NC, Koonin EV, Fire AZ
- Issue date: 2017 Jul 11