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dc.contributor.authorGampfer, Tanja M
dc.contributor.authorWagmann, Lea
dc.contributor.authorPark, Yu Mi
dc.contributor.authorCannaert, Annelies
dc.contributor.authorHerrmann, Jennifer
dc.contributor.authorFischmann, Svenja
dc.contributor.authorWestphal, Folker
dc.contributor.authorMüller, Rolf
dc.contributor.authorStove, Christophe P
dc.contributor.authorMeyer, Markus R
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-22T11:45:04Z
dc.date.available2020-05-22T11:45:04Z
dc.date.issued2020-04-05
dc.identifier.citationArch Toxicol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007en_US
dc.identifier.pmid32249346
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s00204-020-02726-1
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10033/622265
dc.description.abstractThe two fentanyl homologs cyclopropanoyl-1-benzyl-4´-fluoro-4-anilinopiperidine (4F-Cy-BAP) and furanoyl-1-benzyl-4-anilinopiperidine (Fu-BAP) have recently been seized as new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the drugs of abuse market. As their toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic characteristics are completely unknown, this study focused on elucidating their in vitro metabolic stability in pooled human liver S9 fraction (pHLS9), their qualitative in vitro (pHLS9), and in vivo (zebrafish larvae) metabolism, and their in vitro isozyme mapping using recombinant expressed isoenzymes. Their maximum-tolerated concentration (MTC) in zebrafish larvae was studied from 0.01 to 100 µM. Their µ-opioid receptor (MOR) activity was analyzed in engineered human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 T cells. In total, seven phase I and one phase II metabolites of 4F-Cy-BAP and 15 phase I and four phase II metabolites of Fu-BAP were tentatively identified by means of liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, with the majority detected in zebrafish larvae. N-Dealkylation, N-deacylation, hydroxylation, and N-oxidation were the most abundant metabolic reactions and the corresponding metabolites are expected to be promising analytical targets for toxicological analysis. Isozyme mapping revealed the main involvement of CYP3A4 in the phase I metabolism of 4F-Cy-BAP and in terms of Fu-BAP additionally CYP2D6. Therefore, drug-drug interactions by CYP3A4 inhibition may cause elevated drug levels and unwanted adverse effects. MTC experiments revealed malformations and changes in the behavior of larvae after exposure to 100 µM Fu-BAP. Both substances were only able to produce a weak activation of MOR and although toxic effects based on MOR activation seem unlikely, activity at other receptors cannot be excludeden_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherSpringer Natureen_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/*
dc.subjectIn vitro and in vivo metabolismen_US
dc.subjectIn vitro µ-opioid receptor activityen_US
dc.subjectLC–HRMS/MSen_US
dc.subjectMetabolic stabilityen_US
dc.subjectZebrafish larvaeen_US
dc.titleToxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of the fentanyl homologs cyclopropanoyl-1-benzyl-4´-fluoro-4-anilinopiperidine and furanoyl-1-benzyl-4-anilinopiperidine.en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.eissn1432-0738
dc.contributor.departmentHIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.en_US
dc.identifier.journalArchives of toxicologyen_US
refterms.dateFOA2020-05-22T11:45:07Z
dc.source.journaltitleArchives of toxicology
dc.source.countryGermany


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