Identification of a Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Cell Entry Inhibitor by Using a Novel Lentiviral Pseudotype System.
|dc.identifier.citation||J Virol. 2015;90(6):3065-3073. Published 2015 Dec 30. doi:10.1128/JVI.03074-15.||en_US|
|dc.description.abstract||Lentiviral budding is governed by group-specific antigens (Gag proteins) and proceeds in the absence of cognate viral envelope proteins, which has been exploited to create pseudotypes incorporating envelope proteins from nonlentiviral families. Here, we report the generation of infectious lentiviral pseudoparticles incorporating human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) F protein alone (hRSV-Fpp) or carrying SH, G, and F proteins (hRSV-SH/G/Fpp). These particles recapitulate key infection steps of authentic hRSV particles, including utilization of glycosaminoglycans and low-pH-independent cell entry. Moreover, hRSV pseudoparticles (hRSVpp) can faithfully reproduce phenotypic resistance to a small-molecule fusion inhibitor in clinical development (BMS-433771) and a licensed therapeutic F protein-targeting antibody (palivizumab). Inoculation of several human cell lines from lung and liver revealed more than 30-fold differences in susceptibility to hRSVpp infection, suggesting differential expression of hRSV entry cofactors and/or restriction factors between these cell types. Moreover, we observed cell-type-dependent functional differences between hRSVpp carrying solely F protein or SH, G, and F proteins with regard to utilization of glycosaminoglycans. Using hRSVpp, we identified penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (PGG) as a novel hRSV cell entry inhibitor. Moreover, we show that PGG also inhibits cell entry of hRSVpp carrying F proteins resistant to BMS-433771 or palivizumab. This work sheds new light on the mechanisms of hRSV cell entry, including possible strategies for antiviral intervention. Moreover, hRSVpp should prove valuable to dissect hRSV envelope protein functions, including the interaction with cell entry factors. Importance: Lentiviral pseudotypes are highly useful to specifically dissect the functions of viral and host factors in cell entry, which have been exploited for numerous viruses. Here, we successfully created hRSVpp and show that they faithfully recapitulate key characteristics of parental hRSV cell entry. Importantly, hRSVpp accurately mirror hRSV resistance to small-molecule fusion inhibitors and clinically approved therapeutic antibodies. Moreover, we observed highly different susceptibilities of cell lines to hRSVpp infection and also differences between hRSVpp types (with F protein alone or with SH, G, and F proteins) in regard to cell entry. This indicates differential expression of host factors determining hRSV cell entry between these cell lines and highlights the fact that the hRSVpp system is useful to explore the functional properties of hRSV envelope protein combinations. Therefore, this system will be highly useful to study hRSV cell entry and host factor usage and to explore antiviral strategies targeting hRSV cell entry.||en_US|
|dc.rights||Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International||*|
|dc.title||Identification of a Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Cell Entry Inhibitor by Using a Novel Lentiviral Pseudotype System.||en_US|
|dc.contributor.department||TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany.||en_US|
|dc.identifier.journal||Journal of virology||en_US|
|dc.source.journaltitle||Journal of virology|