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dc.contributor.authorGrubbs, Kirk J
dc.contributor.authorSurup, Frank
dc.contributor.authorBiedermann, Peter H W
dc.contributor.authorMcDonald, Bradon R
dc.contributor.authorKlassen, Jonathan L
dc.contributor.authorCarlson, Caitlin M
dc.contributor.authorClardy, Jon
dc.contributor.authorCurrie, Cameron R
dc.date.accessioned2020-11-06T10:26:06Z
dc.date.available2020-11-06T10:26:06Z
dc.date.issued2020-09-24
dc.identifier.citationFront Microbiol. 2020 Sep 24;11:562140. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.562140.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1664-302X
dc.identifier.pmid33101237
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fmicb.2020.562140
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10033/622558
dc.description.abstractSymbiotic microbes help a myriad of insects acquire nutrients. Recent work suggests that insects also frequently associate with actinobacterial symbionts that produce molecules to help defend against parasites and predators. Here we explore a potential association between Actinobacteria and two species of fungus-farming ambrosia beetles, Xyleborinus saxesenii and Xyleborus affinis. We isolated and identified actinobacterial and fungal symbionts from laboratory reared nests, and characterized small molecules produced by the putative actinobacterial symbionts. One 16S rRNA phylotype of Streptomyces (XylebKG-1) was abundantly and consistently isolated from the galleries and adults of X. saxesenii and X. affinis nests. In addition to Raffaelea sulphurea, the symbiont that X. saxesenii cultivates, we also repeatedly isolated a strain of Nectria sp. that is an antagonist of this mutualism. Inhibition bioassays between Streptomyces griseus XylebKG-1 and the fungal symbionts from X. saxesenii revealed strong inhibitory activity of the actinobacterium toward the fungal antagonist Nectria sp. but not the fungal mutualist R. sulphurea. Bioassay guided HPLC fractionation of S. griseus XylebKG-1 culture extracts, followed by NMR and mass spectrometry, identified cycloheximide as the compound responsible for the observed growth inhibition. A biosynthetic gene cluster putatively encoding cycloheximide was also identified in S. griseus XylebKG-1. The consistent isolation of a single 16S phylotype of Streptomyces from two species of ambrosia beetles, and our finding that a representative isolate of this phylotype produces cycloheximide, which inhibits a parasite of the system but not the cultivated fungus, suggests that these actinobacteria may play defensive roles within these systems.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherFrontiersen_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/*
dc.subjectInsect symbioisen_US
dc.subjectantimicrobialen_US
dc.subjectinsect fungal interactionsen_US
dc.subjectmutualismen_US
dc.subjectsymbiosisen_US
dc.titleCycloheximide-Producing Associated With and Fungus-Farming Ambrosia Beetles.en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentHZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany.en_US
dc.identifier.journalFrontiers in microbiologyen_US
dc.source.volume11
dc.source.beginpage562140
dc.source.endpage
refterms.dateFOA2020-11-06T10:26:07Z
dc.source.journaltitleFrontiers in microbiology
dc.source.countryUnited States
dc.source.countrySwitzerland


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