Crystalline sponges as a sensitive and fast method for metabolite identification: Application to gemfibrozil and its phase I and II metabolites
Cast your vote
You can rate an item by clicking the amount of stars they wish to award to this item.
When enough users have cast their vote on this item, the average rating will also be shown.
Your vote was cast
Thank you for your feedback
Thank you for your feedback
Von Essen, Carolina
Hartmann, Rolf W.
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractUnderstanding the metabolism of new drug candidates is important during drug discovery and development, as circulating metabolites may contribute to efficacy or cause safety issues. In the early phase of drug discovery, human in vitro systems are used to investigate human relevant metabolism. Though conventional techniques are limited in their ability to provide complete molecular structures of metabolites (liquid chromatography mass spectrometry) or require a larger amount of material not available from in vitro incubation (nuclear magnetic resonance), we here report for the first time the use of the crystalline sponge method to identify phase I and phase II metabolites generated from in vitro liver microsomes or S9 fractions. Gemfibrozil was used as a test compound. Metabolites generated from incubation with microsomes or S9 fractions, were fractionated using online fraction collection. After chromatographic purification and fractionation of the generated metabolites, single crystal X-ray diffraction of crystalline sponges was used to identify the structure of gemfibrozil metabolites. This technique allowed for complete structure elucidation of 5'-CH2OH gemfibrozil (M1), 4'-OH gemfibrozil (M2), 5'-COOH gemfibrozil (M3), and the acyl glucuronide of gemfibrozil, 1-O-β-glucuronide (M4), the first acyl glucuronide available in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre. Our study shows that when optimal soaking is possible, crystalline sponges technology is a sensitive (nanogram amount) and fast (few days) method that can be applied early in drug discovery to identify the structure of pure metabolites from in vitro incubations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Complete structure elucidation of human metabolites plays a critical role in early drug discovery. Low amounts of material (nanogram) are only available at this stage and insufficient for nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The crystalline sponge method has the potential to close this gap, as demonstrated in this study.
CitationDrug Metab Dispos. 2020 Jul;48(7):587-593. doi: 10.1124/dmd.120.091140. Epub 2020 May 20.
AffiliationHIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.
JournalDrug Metabolism and Disposition
The following license files are associated with this item:
- Creative Commons
- Metabolic Profiling of S-praziquantel: Structure Elucidation Using the Crystalline Sponge Method in Combination with Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.
- Authors: Rosenberger L, Jenniches J, von Essen C, Khutia A, Kühn C, Marx A, Georgi K, Hirsch AKH, Hartmann RW, Badolo L
- Issue date: 2022 Apr
- Bio-generation of stable isotope-labeled internal standards for absolute and relative quantitation of phase II drug metabolites in plasma samples using LC-MS/MS.
- Authors: Li P, Li Z, Beck WD, Callahan PM, Terry AV Jr, Bar-Peled M, Bartlett MG
- Issue date: 2015 May
- Identification of finasteride metabolites in human bile and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
- Authors: Lundahl A, Lennernäs H, Knutson L, Bondesson U, Hedeland M
- Issue date: 2009 Oct
- Glucuronidation converts gemfibrozil to a potent, metabolism-dependent inhibitor of CYP2C8: implications for drug-drug interactions.
- Authors: Ogilvie BW, Zhang D, Li W, Rodrigues AD, Gipson AE, Holsapple J, Toren P, Parkinson A
- Issue date: 2006 Jan
- Studies to further investigate the inhibition of human liver microsomal CYP2C8 by the acyl-β-glucuronide of gemfibrozil.
- Authors: Jenkins SM, Zvyaga T, Johnson SR, Hurley J, Wagner A, Burrell R, Turley W, Leet JE, Philip T, Rodrigues AD
- Issue date: 2011 Dec