Antiviral Actions of 25-Hydroxycholesterol in Fish Vary With the Virus-Host Combination.
Cast your vote
You can rate an item by clicking the amount of stars they wish to award to this item.
When enough users have cast their vote on this item, the average rating will also be shown.
Your vote was cast
Thank you for your feedback
Thank you for your feedback
Becker, Anna M
Bergmann, Sven M
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractCholesterol is essential for building and maintaining cell membranes and is critical for several steps in the replication cycle of viruses, especially for enveloped viruses. In mammalian cells virus infections lead to the accumulation of the oxysterol 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), an antiviral factor, which is produced from cholesterol by the cholesterol 25 hydroxylase (CH25H). Antiviral responses based on CH25H are not well studied in fish. Therefore, in the present study putative genes encoding for CH25H were identified and amplified in common carp and rainbow trout cells and an HPLC-MS method was applied for determination of oxysterol concentrations in these cells under virus infection. Our results give some evidence that the activation of CH25H could be a part of the antiviral response against a broad spectrum of viruses infecting fish, in both common carp and rainbow trout cells in vitro. Quantification of oxysterols showed that fibroblastic cells are capable of producing 25HC and its metabolite 7α,25diHC. The oxysterol 25HC showed an antiviral activity by blocking the entry of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) into KFC cells, but not spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) or common carp paramyxovirus (Para) in the same cells, or viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) into RTG-2 cells. Despite the fact that the CH25H based antiviral response coincides with type I IFN responses, the stimulation of salmonid cells with recombinant type I IFN proteins from rainbow trout could not induce ch25h_b gene expression. This provided further evidence, that the CH25H-response is not type I IFN dependent. Interestingly, the susceptibility of CyHV-3 to 25HC is counteracted by a downregulation of the expression of the ch25h_b gene in carp fibroblasts during CyHV-3 infection. This shows a unique interplay between oxysterol based immune responses and immunomodulatory abilities of certain viruses.
CitationFront Immunol. 2021 Feb 24;12:581786. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.581786.
AffiliationTWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany.
JournalFrontiers in immunology
The following license files are associated with this item:
- Creative Commons
- Interferon-independent antiviral activity of 25-hydroxycholesterol in a teleost fish.
- Authors: Pereiro P, Forn-Cuní G, Dios S, Coll J, Figueras A, Novoa B
- Issue date: 2017 Sep
- Interferon type I responses to virus infections in carp cells: In vitro studies on Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and Rhabdovirus carpio infections.
- Authors: Adamek M, Rakus KŁ, Chyb J, Brogden G, Huebner A, Irnazarow I, Steinhagen D
- Issue date: 2012 Sep
- Type I interferon responses of common carp strains with different levels of resistance to koi herpesvirus disease during infection with CyHV-3 or SVCV.
- Authors: Adamek M, Matras M, Dawson A, Piackova V, Gela D, Kocour M, Adamek J, Kaminski R, Rakus K, Bergmann SM, Stachnik M, Reichert M, Steinhagen D
- Issue date: 2019 Apr
- The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interferon response in the ovary.
- Authors: Chaves-Pozo E, Zou J, Secombes CJ, Cuesta A, Tafalla C
- Issue date: 2010 May
- 25-Hydroxycholesterol Production by the Cholesterol-25-Hydroxylase Interferon-Stimulated Gene Restricts Mammalian Reovirus Infection.
- Authors: Doms A, Sanabria T, Hansen JN, Altan-Bonnet N, Holm GH
- Issue date: 2018 Sep 15