Establishment, Validation, and Initial Application of a Sensitive LC-MS/MS Assay for Quantification of the Naturally Occurring Isomers Itaconate, Mesaconate, and Citraconate.
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AbstractItaconate is derived from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate cis-aconitate and links innate immunity and metabolism. Its synthesis is altered in inflammation-related disorders and it therefore has potential as clinical biomarker. Mesaconate and citraconate are naturally occurring isomers of itaconate that have been linked to metabolic disorders, but their functional relationships with itaconate are unknown. We aimed to establish a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) assay for the quantification of itaconate, mesaconate, citraconate, the pro-drug 4-octyl-itaconate, and selected TCA intermediates. The assay was validated for itaconate, mesaconate, and citraconate for intra- and interday precision and accuracy, extended stability, recovery, freeze/thaw cycles, and carry-over. The lower limit of quantification was 0.098 µM for itaconate and mesaconate and 0.049 µM for citraconate in 50 µL samples. In spike-in experiments, itaconate remained stable in human plasma and whole blood for 24 and 8 h, respectively, whereas spiked-in citraconate and mesaconate concentrations changed during incubation. The type of anticoagulant in blood collection tubes affected measured levels of selected TCA intermediates. Human plasma may contain citraconate (0.4-0.6 µM, depending on the donor), but not itaconate or mesaconate, and lipopolysaccharide stimulation of whole blood induced only itaconate. Concentrations of the three isomers differed greatly among mouse organs: Itaconate and citraconate were most abundant in lymph nodes, mesaconate in kidneys, and only citraconate occurred in brain. This assay should prove useful to quantify itaconate isomers in biomarker and pharmacokinetic studies, while providing internal controls for their effects on metabolism by allowing quantification of TCA intermediates.
CitationMetabolites. 2021 Apr 26;11(5):270. doi: 10.3390/metabo11050270.
AffiliationTWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany.
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