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dc.contributor.authorArulraj, Theinmozhi
dc.contributor.authorBinder, Sebastian C
dc.contributor.authorRobert, Philippe A
dc.contributor.authorMeyer-Hermann, Michael
dc.date.accessioned2021-09-08T12:17:09Z
dc.date.available2021-09-08T12:17:09Z
dc.date.issued2021-07-07
dc.identifier.citationFront Immunol. 2021 Jul 7;12:705240. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.705240.en_US
dc.identifier.pmid34305944
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fimmu.2021.705240
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10033/623017
dc.description.abstractGerminal Centres (GCs) are transient structures in secondary lymphoid organs, where affinity maturation of B cells takes place following an infection. While GCs are responsible for protective antibody responses, dysregulated GC reactions are associated with autoimmune disease and B cell lymphoma. Typically, 'normal' GCs persist for a limited period of time and eventually undergo shutdown. In this review, we focus on an important but unanswered question - what causes the natural termination of the GC reaction? In murine experiments, lack of antigen, absence or constitutive T cell help leads to premature termination of the GC reaction. Consequently, our present understanding is limited to the idea that GCs are terminated due to a decrease in antigen access or changes in the nature of T cell help. However, there is no direct evidence on which biological signals are primarily responsible for natural termination of GCs and a mechanistic understanding is clearly lacking. We discuss the present understanding of the GC shutdown, from factors impacting GC dynamics to changes in cellular interactions/dynamics during the GC lifetime. We also address potential missing links and remaining questions in GC biology, to facilitate further studies to promote a better understanding of GC shutdown in infection and immune dysregulation.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherFrontiersen_US
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/*
dc.subjectB cell lymphomaen_US
dc.subjectantibody responsesen_US
dc.subjectchronic germinal centresen_US
dc.subjectectopic germinal centresen_US
dc.subjectgerminal centre shutdownen_US
dc.subjectvaccinationen_US
dc.titleGerminal Centre Shutdown.en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.eissn1664-3224
dc.contributor.departmentBRICS, Braunschweiger Zentrum für Systembiologie, Rebenring 56,38106 Braunschweig, Germany.; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany.en_US
dc.identifier.journalFrontiers in immunologyen_US
dc.source.volume12
dc.source.beginpage705240
dc.source.endpage
refterms.dateFOA2021-09-08T12:17:10Z
dc.source.journaltitleFrontiers in immunology
dc.source.countrySwitzerland


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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 4.0 International