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dc.contributor.authorCrous, P W
dc.contributor.authorLombard, L
dc.contributor.authorSandoval-Denis, M
dc.contributor.authorSeifert, K A
dc.contributor.authorSchroers, H-J
dc.contributor.authorChaverri, P
dc.contributor.authorGené, J
dc.contributor.authorGuarro, J
dc.contributor.authorHirooka, Y
dc.contributor.authorBensch, K
dc.contributor.authorKema, G H J
dc.contributor.authorLamprecht, S C
dc.contributor.authorCai, L
dc.contributor.authorRossman, A Y
dc.contributor.authorStadler, Marc
dc.contributor.authorSummerbell, R C
dc.contributor.authorTaylor, J W
dc.contributor.authorPloch, S
dc.contributor.authorVisagie, C M
dc.contributor.authorYilmaz, N
dc.contributor.authorFrisvad, J C
dc.contributor.authorAbdel-Azeem, A M
dc.contributor.authorAbdollahzadeh, J
dc.contributor.authorAbdolrasouli, A
dc.contributor.authorAkulov, A
dc.contributor.authorAlberts, J F
dc.contributor.authorAraújo, J P M
dc.contributor.authorAriyawansa, H A
dc.contributor.authorBakhshi, M
dc.contributor.authorBendiksby, M
dc.contributor.authorBen Hadj Amor, A
dc.contributor.authorBezerra, J D P
dc.contributor.authorBoekhout, T
dc.contributor.authorCâmara, M P S
dc.contributor.authorCarbia, M
dc.contributor.authorCardinali, G
dc.contributor.authorCastañeda-Ruiz, R F
dc.contributor.authorCelis, A
dc.contributor.authorChaturvedi, V
dc.contributor.authorCollemare, J
dc.contributor.authorCroll, D
dc.contributor.authorDamm, U
dc.contributor.authorDecock, C A
dc.contributor.authorde Vries, R P
dc.contributor.authorEzekiel, C N
dc.contributor.authorFan, X L
dc.contributor.authorFernández, N B
dc.contributor.authorGaya, E
dc.contributor.authorGonzález, C D
dc.contributor.authorGramaje, D
dc.contributor.authorGroenewald, J Z
dc.contributor.authorGrube, M
dc.contributor.authorGuevara-Suarez, M
dc.contributor.authorGupta, V K
dc.contributor.authorGuarnaccia, V
dc.contributor.authorHaddaji, A
dc.contributor.authorHagen, F
dc.contributor.authorHaelewaters, D
dc.contributor.authorHansen, K
dc.contributor.authorHashimoto, A
dc.contributor.authorHernández-Restrepo, M
dc.contributor.authorHoubraken, J
dc.contributor.authorHubka, V
dc.contributor.authorHyde, K D
dc.contributor.authorIturriaga, T
dc.contributor.authorJeewon, R
dc.contributor.authorJohnston, P R
dc.contributor.authorJurjević, Ž
dc.contributor.authorKaralti, I
dc.contributor.authorKorsten, L
dc.contributor.authorKuramae, E E
dc.contributor.authorKušan, I
dc.contributor.authorLabuda, R
dc.contributor.authorLawrence, D P
dc.contributor.authorLee, H B
dc.contributor.authorLechat, C
dc.contributor.authorLi, H Y
dc.contributor.authorLitovka, Y A
dc.contributor.authorMaharachchikumbura, S S N
dc.contributor.authorMarin-Felix, Y
dc.contributor.authorMatio Kemkuignou, B
dc.contributor.authorMatočec, N
dc.contributor.authorMcTaggart, A R
dc.contributor.authorMlčoch, P
dc.contributor.authorMugnai, L
dc.contributor.authorNakashima, C
dc.contributor.authorNilsson, R H
dc.contributor.authorNoumeur, S R
dc.contributor.authorPavlov, I N
dc.contributor.authorPeralta, M P
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, A J L
dc.contributor.authorPitt, J I
dc.contributor.authorPolizzi, G
dc.contributor.authorQuaedvlieg, W
dc.contributor.authorRajeshkumar, K C
dc.contributor.authorRestrepo, S
dc.contributor.authorRhaiem, A
dc.contributor.authorRobert, J
dc.contributor.authorRobert, V
dc.contributor.authorRodrigues, A M
dc.contributor.authorSalgado-Salazar, C
dc.contributor.authorSamson, R A
dc.contributor.authorSantos, A C S
dc.contributor.authorShivas, R G
dc.contributor.authorSouza-Motta, C M
dc.contributor.authorSun, G Y
dc.contributor.authorSwart, W J
dc.contributor.authorSzoke, S
dc.contributor.authorTan, Y P
dc.contributor.authorTaylor, J E
dc.contributor.authorTaylor, P W J
dc.contributor.authorTiago, P V
dc.contributor.authorVáczy, K Z
dc.contributor.authorvan de Wiele, N
dc.contributor.authorvan der Merwe, N A
dc.contributor.authorVerkley, G J M
dc.contributor.authorVieira, W A S
dc.contributor.authorVizzini, A
dc.contributor.authorWeir, B S
dc.contributor.authorWijayawardene, N N
dc.contributor.authorXia, J W
dc.contributor.authorYáñez-Morales, M J
dc.contributor.authorYurkov, A
dc.contributor.authorZamora, J C
dc.contributor.authorZare, R
dc.contributor.authorZhang, C L
dc.identifier.citationStud Mycol. 2021 Aug 17;98:100116. doi: 10.1016/j.simyco.2021.100116.en_US
dc.description.abstractRecent publications have argued that there are potentially serious consequences for researchers in recognising distinct genera in the terminal fusarioid clade of the family Nectriaceae. Thus, an alternate hypothesis, namely a very broad concept of the genus Fusarium was proposed. In doing so, however, a significant body of data that supports distinct genera in Nectriaceae based on morphology, biology, and phylogeny is disregarded. A DNA phylogeny based on 19 orthologous protein-coding genes was presented to support a very broad concept of Fusarium at the F1 node in Nectriaceae. Here, we demonstrate that re-analyses of this dataset show that all 19 genes support the F3 node that represents Fusarium sensu stricto as defined by F. sambucinum (sexual morph synonym Gibberella pulicaris). The backbone of the phylogeny is resolved by the concatenated alignment, but only six of the 19 genes fully support the F1 node, representing the broad circumscription of Fusarium. Furthermore, a re-analysis of the concatenated dataset revealed alternate topologies in different phylogenetic algorithms, highlighting the deep divergence and unresolved placement of various Nectriaceae lineages proposed as members of Fusarium. Species of Fusarium s. str. are characterised by Gibberella sexual morphs, asexual morphs with thin- or thick-walled macroconidia that have variously shaped apical and basal cells, and trichothecene mycotoxin production, which separates them from other fusarioid genera. Here we show that the Wollenweber concept of Fusarium presently accounts for 20 segregate genera with clear-cut synapomorphic traits, and that fusarioid macroconidia represent a character that has been gained or lost multiple times throughout Nectriaceae. Thus, the very broad circumscription of Fusarium is blurry and without apparent synapomorphies, and does not include all genera with fusarium-like macroconidia, which are spread throughout Nectriaceae (e.g., Cosmosporella, Macroconia, Microcera). In this study four new genera are introduced, along with 18 new species and 16 new combinations. These names convey information about relationships, morphology, and ecological preference that would otherwise be lost in a broader definition of Fusarium. To assist users to correctly identify fusarioid genera and species, we introduce a new online identification database, Fusarioid-ID, accessible at The database comprises partial sequences from multiple genes commonly used to identify fusarioid taxa (act1, CaM, his3, rpb1, rpb2, tef1, tub2, ITS, and LSU). In this paper, we also present a nomenclator of names that have been introduced in Fusarium up to January 2021 as well as their current status, types, and diagnostic DNA barcode data. In this study, researchers from 46 countries, representing taxonomists, plant pathologists, medical mycologists, quarantine officials, regulatory agencies, and students, strongly support the application and use of a more precisely delimited Fusarium (= Gibberella) concept to accommodate taxa from the robust monophyletic node F3 on the basis of a well-defined and unique combination of morphological and biochemical features. This F3 node includes, among others, species of the F. fujikuroi, F. incarnatum-equiseti, F. oxysporum, and F. sambucinum species complexes, but not species of Bisifusarium [F. dimerum species complex (SC)], Cyanonectria (F. buxicola SC), Geejayessia (F. staphyleae SC), Neocosmospora (F. solani SC) or Rectifusarium (F. ventricosum SC). The present study represents the first step to generating a new online monograph of Fusarium and allied fusarioid genera (
dc.publisherElsevier BVen_US
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.subjectApiognomonia platani (Lév.) L. Lombarden_US
dc.subjectAtractium ciliatum Linken_US
dc.subjectAtractium pallidum Bonord.en_US
dc.subjectCalloria tremelloides (Grev.) L. Lombarden_US
dc.subjectCephalosporium sacchari E.J. Butleren_US
dc.subjectCosmosporella cavisperma (Corda) Sand.-Den., L. Lombard & Crousen_US
dc.subjectCylindrodendrum orthosporum (Sacc. & P. Syd.) L. Lombarden_US
dc.subjectDialonectria volutella (Ellis & Everh.) L. Lombard & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium aeruginosum Delacr.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium agaricorum Sarrazinen_US
dc.subjectFusarium albidoviolaceum Dasz.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium aleyrodis Petchen_US
dc.subjectFusarium amentorum Lacroixen_US
dc.subjectFusarium annuum Leonianen_US
dc.subjectFusarium arcuatum Berk. & M.A. Curtisen_US
dc.subjectFusarium aridum O.A. Pratten_US
dc.subjectFusarium armeniacum (G.A. Forbes et al.) L.W. Burgess & Summerellen_US
dc.subjectFusarium arthrosporioides Sherb.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium asparagi Delacr.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium batatas Wollenw.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium biforme Sherb.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium buharicum Jacz. ex Babajan & Teterevn.-Babajanen_US
dc.subjectFusarium cactacearum Pasin. & Buzz.-Trav.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium cacti-maxonii Pasin. & Buzz.-Trav.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium caudatum Wollenw.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium cavispermum Cordaen_US
dc.subjectFusarium cepae Hanzawaen_US
dc.subjectFusarium cesatii Rabenh.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium citriforme Jamal.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium citrinum Wollenw.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium citrulli Taubenh.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium clavatum Sherb.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium coccinellum Kalchbr.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium cromyophthoron Siderisen_US
dc.subjectFusarium cucurbitae Taubenh.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium cuneiforme Sherb.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium delacroixii Sacc.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium dimerum var. nectrioides Wollenw.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium echinatum Sand.-Den. & G.J. Maraisen_US
dc.subjectFusarium epicoccum McAlpineen_US
dc.subjectFusarium eucheliae Sartory, R. Sartory & J. Mey.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium fissum Peylen_US
dc.subjectFusarium flocciferum Cordaen_US
dc.subjectFusarium gemmiperda Aderh.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium genevense Dasz.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium graminearum Schwabeen_US
dc.subjectFusarium graminum Cordaen_US
dc.subjectFusarium heterosporioides Fautreyen_US
dc.subjectFusarium heterosporum Nees & T. Neesen_US
dc.subjectFusarium idahoanum O.A. Pratten_US
dc.subjectFusarium juruanum Henn.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium lanceolatum O.A. Pratten_US
dc.subjectFusarium lateritium Neesen_US
dc.subjectFusarium loncheceras Siderisen_US
dc.subjectFusarium longipes Wollenw. & Reinkingen_US
dc.subjectFusarium lyarnte J.L. Walsh, Sangal., L.W. Burgess, E.C.Y. Liew & Summerellen_US
dc.subjectFusarium malvacearum Taubenh.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium martii f. phaseoli Burkh.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium muentzii Delacr.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium nigrum O.A. Pratten_US
dc.subjectFusarium oxysporum var. asclerotium Sherb.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium palczewskii Jacz.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium palustre W.H. Elmer & Marraen_US
dc.subjectFusarium polymorphum Matr.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium poolense Taubenh.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium prieskaense G.J. Marais & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium prunorum McAlpineen_US
dc.subjectFusarium pusillum Wollenw.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium putrefaciens Osterw.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium redolens Wollenw.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium reticulatum Mont.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium rhizochromatistes Siderisen_US
dc.subjectFusarium rhizophilum Cordaen_US
dc.subjectFusarium rhodellum McAlpineen_US
dc.subjectFusarium roesleri Thüm.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium rostratum Appel & Wollenw.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium rubiginosum Appel & Wollenw.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium rubrum Parav.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium samoense Gehrm.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium scirpi Lambotte & Fautreyen_US
dc.subjectFusarium secalis Jacz.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium spinaciae Hungerf.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium sporotrichioides Sherb.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium stercoris Fuckelen_US
dc.subjectFusarium stilboides Wollenw.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium stillatum De Not. ex Sacc.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium sublunatum Reinkingen_US
dc.subjectFusarium succisae Schröt. ex Sacc.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium tabacivorum Delacr.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium trichothecioides Wollenw.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium tritici Liebmanen_US
dc.subjectFusarium tuberivorum Wilcox & G.K. Linken_US
dc.subjectFusarium tumidum var. humi Reinkingen_US
dc.subjectFusarium ustilaginis Kellerm. & Swingleen_US
dc.subjectFusarium viticola Thüm.en_US
dc.subjectFusarium werrikimbe J.L. Walsh, L.W. Burgess, E.C.Y. Liew & B.A. Summerellen_US
dc.subjectFusarium willkommii Lindauen_US
dc.subjectFusarium xylarioides Steyaerten_US
dc.subjectFusarium zygopetali Delacr.en_US
dc.subjectFusicolla meniscoidea L. Lombard & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectFusicolla quarantenae J.D.P. Bezerra, Sand.-Den., Crous & Souza-Mottaen_US
dc.subjectFusicolla sporellula Sand.-Den. & L. Lombarden_US
dc.subjectFusisporium andropogonis Cooke ex Thüm.en_US
dc.subjectFusisporium anthophilum A. Braunen_US
dc.subjectFusisporium arundinis Cordaen_US
dc.subjectFusisporium avenaceum Fr.en_US
dc.subjectFusisporium clypeaster Cordaen_US
dc.subjectFusisporium culmorum Wm.G. Sm.en_US
dc.subjectFusisporium didymum Hartingen_US
dc.subjectFusisporium elasticae Thüm.en_US
dc.subjectFusisporium episphaericum Cooke & Ellisen_US
dc.subjectFusisporium flavidum Bonord.en_US
dc.subjectFusisporium hordei Wm.G. Sm.en_US
dc.subjectFusisporium incarnatum Roberge ex Desm.en_US
dc.subjectFusisporium lolii Wm.G. Sm.en_US
dc.subjectFusisporium pandani Cordaen_US
dc.subjectGibberella phyllostachydicola W. Yamam.en_US
dc.subjectHymenella aurea (Corda) L. Lombarden_US
dc.subjectHymenella spermogoniopsis (Jul. Müll.) L. Lombard & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectLuteonectria Sand.-Den., L. Lombard, Schroers & Rossmanen_US
dc.subjectLuteonectria albida (Rossman) Sand.-Den. & L. Lombarden_US
dc.subjectLuteonectria nematophila (Nirenberg & Hagedorn) Sand.-Den. & L. Lombarden_US
dc.subjectMacroconia bulbipes Crous & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectMacroconia phlogioides Sand.-Den. & Crousen_US
dc.subjectMenispora penicillata Harzen_US
dc.subjectMulti-gene phylogenyen_US
dc.subjectNeocosmospora epipeda Quaedvl. & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectNeocosmospora floridana (T. Aoki et al.) L. Lombard & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectNeocosmospora merkxiana Quaedvl. & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectNeocosmospora neerlandica Crous & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectNeocosmospora nelsonii Crous & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectNeocosmospora obliquiseptata (T. Aoki et al.) L. Lombard & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectNeocosmospora pseudopisi Sand.-Den. & L. Lombarden_US
dc.subjectNeocosmospora rekana (Lynn & Marinc.) L. Lombard & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectNeocosmospora tuaranensis (T. Aoki et al.) L. Lombard & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectNothofusarium Crous, Sand.-Den. & L. Lombarden_US
dc.subjectNothofusarium devonianum L. Lombard, Crous & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectNovel taxaen_US
dc.subjectScolecofusarium L. Lombard, Sand.-Den. & Crousen_US
dc.subjectScolecofusarium ciliatum (Link) L. Lombard, Sand.-Den. & Crousen_US
dc.subjectSelenosporium equiseti Cordaen_US
dc.subjectSelenosporium hippocastani Cordaen_US
dc.subjectSelenosporium sarcochroum Desmen_US
dc.subjectSelenosporium urticearum Corda.en_US
dc.subjectSetofusarium (Nirenberg & Samuels) Crous & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectSetofusarium setosum (Samuels & Nirenberg) Sand.-Den. & Crous.en_US
dc.subjectSphaeria sanguinea var. cicatricum Berk.en_US
dc.subjectSporotrichum poae Peck.en_US
dc.subjectStylonectria corniculata Gräfenhan, Crous & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.subjectStylonectria hetmanica Akulov, Crous & Sand.-Den.en_US
dc.titleFusarium: more than a node or a foot-shaped basal cell.en_US
dc.contributor.departmentHZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany.en_US
dc.identifier.journalStudies in mycologyen_US
dc.source.journaltitleStudies in mycology

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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 4.0 International