Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorGern, Olivia Luise
dc.contributor.authorMulenge, Felix
dc.contributor.authorPavlou, Andreas
dc.contributor.authorGhita, Luca
dc.contributor.authorSteffen, Imke
dc.contributor.authorStangel, Martin
dc.contributor.authorKalinke, Ulrich
dc.date.accessioned2022-02-01T16:13:59Z
dc.date.available2022-02-01T16:13:59Z
dc.date.issued2021-10-14
dc.identifier.citationViruses. 2021 Oct 14;13(10):2065. doi: 10.3390/v13102065.en_US
dc.identifier.pmid34696494
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/v13102065
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10033/623156
dc.description.abstractViral encephalitis is a rare but serious syndrome. In addition to DNA-encoded herpes viruses, such as herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus, RNA-encoded viruses from the families of Flaviviridae, Rhabdoviridae and Paramyxoviridae are important neurotropic viruses. Whereas in the periphery, the role of Toll-like receptors (TLR) during immune stimulation is well understood, TLR functions within the CNS are less clear. On one hand, TLRs can affect the physiology of neurons during neuronal progenitor cell differentiation and neurite outgrowth, whereas under conditions of infection, the complex interplay between TLR stimulated neurons, astrocytes and microglia is just on the verge of being understood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about which TLRs are expressed by cell subsets of the CNS. Furthermore, we specifically highlight functional implications of TLR stimulation in neurons, astrocytes and microglia. After briefly illuminating some examples of viral evasion strategies from TLR signaling, we report on the current knowledge of primary immunodeficiencies in TLR signaling and their consequences for viral encephalitis. Finally, we provide an outlook with examples of TLR agonist mediated intervention strategies and potentiation of vaccine responses against neurotropic virus infections.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherMDPIen_US
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/*
dc.subjectCNSen_US
dc.subjectToll-like receptorsen_US
dc.subjectastrocytesen_US
dc.subjectmicrogliaen_US
dc.subjectneuronsen_US
dc.subjectviral encephalitisen_US
dc.subjectvirusesen_US
dc.titleToll-like Receptors in Viral Encephalitis.en_US
dc.typeReviewen_US
dc.identifier.eissn1999-4915
dc.contributor.departmentTWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany.en_US
dc.identifier.journalVirusesen_US
dc.source.volume13
dc.source.issue10
refterms.dateFOA2022-02-01T16:13:59Z
dc.source.journaltitleViruses
dc.source.countrySwitzerland


Files in this item

Thumbnail
Name:
Gern et al.pdf
Size:
1.458Mb
Format:
PDF
Description:
Open Access publication

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 4.0 International