• CD8(+) T cells armed with retrovirally transduced IFN-gamma.

      Becker, Christian; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Jablonska, Jadwiga; Bauer, Heike; Weiss, Siegfried (2007-01-01)
      Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is considered a key cytokine involved in the preventive and defensive responses of T cells against infectious pathogens and tumors. Therefore, the transgenic expression of IFN-gamma in specific T cells appears to be an obvious therapeutic possibility. To directly examine whether IFN-gamma production can be increased in T cells, we introduced an IFN-gamma encoding cDNA into IFN-gamma(-/-) and IFN-gamma(+/+) CD8(+) effector populations by retroviral transduction. Here, we show that CD8 T cells can be equipped with IFN-gamma that increases their capacity to secrete the cytokine. Despite constitutive retroviral IFN-gamma mRNA transcription, translation and secretion of IFN-gamma protein was tightly regulated and only observed in activated T cells. Neither proliferation nor cytolytic activity of CTL was affected by IFN-gamma transduction. Importantly, CD8(+) T cells retrovirally transduced with IFN-gamma exhibit augmented tumor suppressive capacity upon adoptive transfer into IFN-gamma(-/-) mice. Thus, T cells can be readily armed with IFN-gamma without risking immunopathology by dysregulated production of this highly potent proinflammatory cytokine.
    • Differential effect of auxotrophies on the release of macromolecules by Salmonella enterica vaccine strains.

      Loessner, Holger; Endmann, Anne; Rohde, Manfred; Curtiss, Roy; Weiss, Siegfried; Molecular Immunology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. holger.loessner@helmholtz-hzi.de (2006-12)
      Attenuated Salmonella enterica strains have been widely used as live carriers for vaccines and therapeutic molecules. Appropriate attenuation has been introduced into such bacteria for safety reasons and the improvement of strain properties. Here, we compared two strains that were rendered auxotroph for diaminopimelic acid or thymidine monophosphate precursors by deletion of the genes asd or thyA, respectively. Upon removal of the complementing compound from bacterial cultures, both strains quickly lose their property to form colonies. However, while the Deltaasd bacteria lysed almost immediately under such conditions, DeltathyA bacteria remained physically intact during the observation period. As a consequence, the Deltaasd bacteria released their intracellular content such as proteins or plasmids into the supernatant. In contrast, no intracellular component, either proteins or plasmids, could be recovered from the supernatants of DeltathyA bacteria upon depletion of thymidine. Thus, the release of macromolecules from the bacterial carrier occurs as a consequence of appropriate lethal attenuation. This might substitute for sophisticated secretion systems.
    • Drug-inducible remote control of gene expression by probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in intestine, tumor and gall bladder of mice.

      Loessner, Holger; Leschner, Sara; Endmann, Anne; Westphal, Kathrin; Wolf, Kathrin; Kochruebe, Katja; Miloud, Tewfik; Altenbuchner, Josef; Weiss, Siegfried; Molecular Immunology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, HZI, Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. loeho@pei.de (2009-12)
      The probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) constitutes a prospective vector for delivering heterologous therapeutic molecules to treat several human disorders. To add versatility to this carrier system, bacteria should be equipped with expression modules that can be regulated deliberately in a temporal and quantitative manner. This approach is called in vivo remote control (IVRC) of bacterial vectors. Here, we have evaluated promoters P(araBAD), P(rhaBAD) and P(tet), which can be induced with L-arabinose, L-rhamnose or anhydrotetracycline, respectively. EcN harboring promoter constructs with luciferase as reporter gene were administered either orally to healthy mice or intravenously to tumor bearing animals. Subsequent to bacterial colonization of tissues, inducer substances were administered via the oral or systemic route. By use of in vivo bioluminescence imaging, the time course of reporter gene expression was analyzed. Each promoter displayed a specific in vivo induction profile depending on the niche of bacterial residence and the route of inducer administration. Importantly, we also observed colonization of gall bladders of mice when EcN was administered systemically at high doses. Bacteria in this anatomical compartment remained accessible to remote control of bacterial gene expression.
    • Lack of interferon-beta leads to accelerated remyelination in a toxic model of central nervous system demyelination.

      Trebst, Corinna; Heine, Sandra; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Lindner, Maren; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Weiss, Siegfried; Stangel, Martin; Department of Neurology, Medical School Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany. (2007-12)
      Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is known to modulate the immune response in multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Spontaneous remyelination and repair mechanisms in MS are mostly insufficient and contribute to clinical disability. Here, we investigated whether IFN-beta has a potential in modifying the extent of de- and remyelination in a toxic model of CNS demyelination induced by the copper chelator cuprizone. IFN-beta deficient (k/o) mice showed an accelerated spontaneous remyelination. However, the amount of remyelination after 6 weeks did not differ between the two groups. Demyelination in IFN-beta k/o mice was paralleled by a diminished astrocytic and microglia response as compared with wildtype controls, whereas the accelerated remyelination was paralleled by an increased number of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) within the demyelinated lesion at the beginning of the remyelination phase. We hypothesize that the absence of IFN-beta leads to more efficient recruitment and proliferation of OPC already during demyelination, thus allowing early remyelination. These results demonstrate that IFN-beta is able to alter remyelination in the absence of an immune-mediated demyelination.
    • Multiple synergizing factors contribute to the strength of the CD8+ T cell response against listeriolysin O.

      Bruder, Dunja; Nussbaum, Alexander K; Gakamsky, Dimitry M; Schirle, Markus; Stevanovic, Stefan; Singh-Jasuja, Harpreet; Darji, Ayub; Chakraborty, Trinad; Schild, Hansjörg; Pecht, Israel; et al. (2006-01-01)
      Immunodominance in CD8+ T cell responses against Listeria monocytogenes is a well-recognized but still not fully understood phenomenon. From listeriolysin, the major virulence factor of L. monocytogenes, only a single epitope, pLLO91-99, is presented by MHC class I molecules in BALB/c mice which dominates the cytotoxic T cell response against this bacterial pathogen. To obtain more insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying immunodominance of this particular epitope, we compared the various steps involved in the presentation and recognition of pLLO91-99 derived from a wild-type toxin with an equivalent epitope from a mutated toxin. This fully functional variant contains within the pLLO91-99 epitope a conservative isoleucine to alanine replacement at the C-terminal anchor residue which results in loss of antigenicity. The binding properties of the variant peptide to soluble Kd remained unaffected and cytotoxic T cells capable of recognizing the pLLO99A/Kd complex were detectable in BALB/c mice. However, such T cells required higher concentrations of antigen in order to be optimally activated in vitro. A comparison between the TAP translocation efficiency of wild-type and mutant peptide demonstrated that the mutation at the C-terminus leads to a reduced transportation rate. Furthermore, the amino acid substitution changes the in vitro proteasomal cleavage pattern, resulting in a reduced liberation of the correct peptide from a polypeptide precursor. Thus, in all assays employed the immunodominant epitope performs optimally while the variant was found to be inferior. The synergy of all these steps most likely is the decisive factor in the immunodominance of pLLO91-99.
    • Type I interferon drives tumor necrosis factor-induced lethal shock.

      Huys, Liesbeth; Van Hauwermeiren, Filip; Dejager, Lien; Dejonckheere, Eline; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Leclercq, Georges; Libert, Claude; Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, VIB, Ghent B9052, Belgium. (2009-08-31)
      Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is reputed to have very powerful antitumor effects, but it is also a strong proinflammatory cytokine. Injection of TNF in humans and mice leads to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with major effects on liver and bowels. TNF is also a central mediator in several inflammatory diseases. We report that type I interferons (IFNs) are essential mediators of the lethal response to TNF. Mice deficient in the IFN-alpha receptor 1 (IFNAR-1) or in IFN-beta are remarkably resistant to TNF-induced hypothermia and death. After TNF injection, IFNAR-1(-/-) mice produced less IL-6, had less bowel damage, and had less apoptosis of enterocytes and hepatocytes compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Extensive gene expression analysis in livers of WT and IFNAR-1(-/-) mice revealed a large deficiency in the response to TNF in the knockout mice, especially of IFN-stimulated response element-dependent genes, many of which encode chemokines. In livers of IFNAR-1(-/-) mice, fewer infiltrating white blood cells (WBCs) were detected by immunohistochemistry. Deficiency of type I IFN signaling provided sufficient protection for potentially safer therapeutic use of TNF in tumor-bearing mice. Our data illustrate that type I IFNs act as essential mediators in TNF-induced lethal inflammatory shock, possibly by enhancing cell death and inducing chemokines and WBC infiltration in tissues.