• Adherence and invasion of streptococci to eukaryotic cells and their role in disease pathogenesis.

      Rohde, Manfred; Chhatwal, G Singh; Department of Medical Microbiology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany. manfred.rohde@helmholtz-hzi.de (2013)
      Streptococcal adhesion, invasion, intracellular trafficking, dissemination, and persistence in eukaryotic cells have a variety of implications in the infection pathogenesis. While cell adhesion establishes the initial host contact, adhering bacteria exploit the host cell for their own benefit. Internalization into the host cell is an essential step for bacterial survival and subsequent dissemination and persistence, thus playing a key role in the course of infection. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge about the diverse mechanisms of streptococcal adhesion to and invasion into different eukaryotic cells and the impact on dissemination and persistence which is reflected by consequences for the pathogenesis of streptococcal infections.
    • Host-pathogen interactions in streptococcal immune sequelae.

      Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstraße 7, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. Patric.Nitsche@helmholtz-hzi.de (2013)
      Otherwise uncomplicated infections with Streptococcus pyogenes can cause two insidious immune sequelae known as post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) and acute rheumatic fever (ARF). These diseases follow with a latency of a few weeks or months after primary infection and are responsible for high mortality and morbidity. PSGN has also been linked to infections with group C streptococci of the species S. equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SESZ). Moreover, there are some indications that infection with group C and G streptococci (GCGS) of the subspecies Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis (SDSE) leads to ARF. Despite decades of research, the picture of the molecular pathogenesis of streptococcal immune sequelae resembles a jigsaw puzzle. Herein we try to put some of the puzzle bits together that have been collected till date.