• Determinants of ligand binding and catalytic activity in the myelin enzyme 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase.

      Raasakka, Arne; Myllykoski, Matti; Laulumaa, Saara; Lehtimäki, Mari; Härtlein, Michael; Moulin, Martine; Kursula, Inari; Kursula, Petri; CSSB, Centre for Structural Systems Biology, Notekestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. (2015)
      2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) is an enzyme highly abundant in the central nervous system myelin of terrestrial vertebrates. The catalytic domain of CNPase belongs to the 2H phosphoesterase superfamily and catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic monophosphates to nucleoside 2'-monophosphates. The detailed reaction mechanism and the essential catalytic amino acids involved have been described earlier, but the roles of many amino acids in the vicinity of the active site have remained unknown. Here, several CNPase catalytic domain mutants were studied using enzyme kinetics assays, thermal stability experiments, and X-ray crystallography. Additionally, the crystal structure of a perdeuterated CNPase catalytic domain was refined at atomic resolution to obtain a detailed view of the active site and the catalytic mechanism. The results specify determinants of ligand binding and novel essential residues required for CNPase catalysis. For example, the aromatic side chains of Phe235 and Tyr168 are crucial for substrate binding, and Arg307 may affect active site electrostatics and regulate loop dynamics. The β5-α7 loop, unique for CNPase in the 2H phosphoesterase family, appears to have various functions in the CNPase reaction mechanism, from coordinating the nucleophilic water molecule to providing a binding pocket for the product and being involved in product release.
    • X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering analysis of the complex formed by the Met receptor and the Listeria monocytogenes invasion protein InlB.

      Niemann, Hartmut H; Petoukhov, Maxim V; Härtlein, Michael; Moulin, Martine; Gherardi, Ermanno; Timmins, Peter; Heinz, Dirk W; Svergun, Dmitri I; Division of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, Inhoffenstrasse 7, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2008-03-21)
      The Listeria monocytogenes surface protein InlB binds to the extracellular domain of the human receptor tyrosine kinase Met, the product of the c-met proto-oncogene. InlB binding activates the Met receptor, leading to uptake of Listeria into normally nonphagocytic host cells. The N-terminal half of InlB (InlB(321)) is sufficient for Met binding and activation. The complex between this Met-binding domain of InlB and various constructs of the Met ectodomain was characterized by size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering, and structural models were built using small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering. Although most receptor tyrosine kinase ligands induce receptor dimerization, InlB(321) consistently binds the Met ectodomain with a 1:1 stoichiometry. A construct comprising the Sema and PSI domains of Met, although sufficient to bind the physiological Met ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, does not form a complex with InlB(321) in solution, highlighting the importance of Met Ig domains for InlB binding. Small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering measurements of ligand and receptor, both free and in complex, reveal an elongated shape for the receptor. The four Ig domains form a bent, rather than a fully extended, conformation, and InlB(321) binds to Sema and the first Ig domain of Met, in agreement with the recent crystal structure of a smaller Met fragment in complex with InlB(321). These results call into question whether receptor dimerization is the basic underlying event in InlB(321)-mediated Met activation and demonstrate differences in the mechanisms by which the physiological ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor and InlB(321) bind and activate the Met receptor.