• Ligand-mediated dimerization of the Met Receptor tyrosine kinase by the bacterial invasion protein InlB.

      Ferraris, Davide M; Gherardi, Ermanno; Di, Ying; Heinz, Dirk W; Niemann, Hartmut H; Division of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. yyoshiki@riken.jp (2010-01-22)
      The Listeria monocytogenes surface protein InlB mediates bacterial invasion into host cells by activating the human receptor tyrosine kinase Met. So far, it is unknown how InlB or the physiological Met ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor causes Met dimerization, which is considered a prerequisite for receptor activation. We determined two new structures of InlB, revealing a recurring, antiparallel, dimeric arrangement, in which the two protomers interact through the convex face of the leucine-rich repeat domain. The same contact is found in one structure of the InlB-Met complex. Mutations disrupting the interprotomeric contact of InlB reduced its ability to activate Met and downstream signaling. Conversely, stabilization of this crystal contact by two intermolecular disulfide bonds generates a constitutively dimeric InlB variant with exceptionally high signaling activity, which can stimulate cell motility and cell division. These data demonstrate that the signaling-competent InlB-Met complex assembles with 2:2 stoichiometry around a back-to-back InlB dimer, enabling the direct contact between the stalk region of two Met molecules.
    • Structure of the human receptor tyrosine kinase met in complex with the Listeria invasion protein InlB.

      Niemann, Hartmut H; Jäger, Volker; Butler, P Jonathan G; van den Heuvel, Joop; Schmidt, Sabine; Ferraris, Davide; Gherardi, Ermanno; Heinz, Dirk W; Division of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstrasse 7, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2007-07-27)
      The tyrosine kinase Met, the product of the c-met proto-oncogene and the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), mediates signals critical for cell survival and migration. The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes exploits Met signaling for invasion of host cells via its surface protein InlB. We present the crystal structure of the complex between a large fragment of the human Met ectodomain and the Met-binding domain of InlB. The concave face of the InlB leucine-rich repeat region interacts tightly with the first immunoglobulin-like domain of the Met stalk, a domain which does not bind HGF/SF. A second contact between InlB and the Met Sema domain locks the otherwise flexible receptor in a rigid, signaling competent conformation. Full Met activation requires the additional C-terminal domains of InlB which induce heparin-mediated receptor clustering and potent signaling. Thus, although it elicits a similar cellular response, InlB is not a structural mimic of HGF/SF.
    • Structure of the Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion translocator chaperone SycD.

      Büttner, Carina R; Sorg, Isabel; Cornelis, Guy R; Heinz, Dirk W; Niemann, Hartmut H; Division of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstrasse 7, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2008-01-25)
      Many Gram-negative bacteria use a type III secretion (T3S) system to directly inject effector molecules into eucaryotic cells in order to establish a symbiotic or pathogenic relationship with their host. The translocation of many T3S proteins requires specialized chaperones from the bacterial cytosol. SycD belongs to a class of T3S chaperones that assists the secretion of pore-forming translocators and, specifically chaperones the translocators YopB and YopD from enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. In addition, SycD is involved in the regulation of virulence factor biosynthesis and secretion. In this study, we present two crystal structures of Y. enterocolitica SycD at 1.95 and 2.6 A resolution, the first experimental structures of a T3S class II chaperone specific for translocators. The fold of SycD is entirely alpha-helical and reveals three tetratricopeptide repeat-like motifs that had been predicted from amino acid sequence. In both structures, SycD forms dimers utilizing residues from the first tetratricopeptide repeat motif. Using site-directed mutagenesis and size exclusion chromatography, we verified that SycD forms head-to-head homodimers in solution. Although in both structures, dimerization largely depends on the same residues, the two assemblies represent alternative dimers that exhibit different monomer orientations and overall shape. In these two distinct head-to-head dimers, both the concave and the convex surface of each monomer are accessible for interactions with the SycD binding partners YopB and YopD. A SycD variant carrying two point mutations in the dimerization interface is properly folded but defective in dimerization. Expression of this stable SycD monomer in Yersinia does not rescue the phenotype of a sycD null mutant, suggesting a physiological relevance of the dimerization interface.
    • X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering analysis of the complex formed by the Met receptor and the Listeria monocytogenes invasion protein InlB.

      Niemann, Hartmut H; Petoukhov, Maxim V; Härtlein, Michael; Moulin, Martine; Gherardi, Ermanno; Timmins, Peter; Heinz, Dirk W; Svergun, Dmitri I; Division of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, Inhoffenstrasse 7, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2008-03-21)
      The Listeria monocytogenes surface protein InlB binds to the extracellular domain of the human receptor tyrosine kinase Met, the product of the c-met proto-oncogene. InlB binding activates the Met receptor, leading to uptake of Listeria into normally nonphagocytic host cells. The N-terminal half of InlB (InlB(321)) is sufficient for Met binding and activation. The complex between this Met-binding domain of InlB and various constructs of the Met ectodomain was characterized by size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering, and structural models were built using small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering. Although most receptor tyrosine kinase ligands induce receptor dimerization, InlB(321) consistently binds the Met ectodomain with a 1:1 stoichiometry. A construct comprising the Sema and PSI domains of Met, although sufficient to bind the physiological Met ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, does not form a complex with InlB(321) in solution, highlighting the importance of Met Ig domains for InlB binding. Small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering measurements of ligand and receptor, both free and in complex, reveal an elongated shape for the receptor. The four Ig domains form a bent, rather than a fully extended, conformation, and InlB(321) binds to Sema and the first Ig domain of Met, in agreement with the recent crystal structure of a smaller Met fragment in complex with InlB(321). These results call into question whether receptor dimerization is the basic underlying event in InlB(321)-mediated Met activation and demonstrate differences in the mechanisms by which the physiological ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor and InlB(321) bind and activate the Met receptor.