• Dissecting the energy metabolism in Mycoplasma pneumoniae through genome-scale metabolic modeling.

      Wodke, Judith A H; Puchałka, Jacek; Lluch-Senar, Maria; Marcos, Josep; Yus, Eva; Godinho, Miguel; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo; dos Santos, Vitor A P Martins; Serrano, Luis; Klipp, Edda; et al. (2013)
      Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a threatening pathogen with a minimal genome, is a model organism for bacterial systems biology for which substantial experimental information is available. With the goal of understanding the complex interactions underlying its metabolism, we analyzed and characterized the metabolic network of M. pneumoniae in great detail, integrating data from different omics analyses under a range of conditions into a constraint-based model backbone. Iterating model predictions, hypothesis generation, experimental testing, and model refinement, we accurately curated the network and quantitatively explored the energy metabolism. In contrast to other bacteria, M. pneumoniae uses most of its energy for maintenance tasks instead of growth. We show that in highly linear networks the prediction of flux distributions for different growth times allows analysis of time-dependent changes, albeit using a static model. By performing an in silico knock-out study as well as analyzing flux distributions in single and double mutant phenotypes, we demonstrated that the model accurately represents the metabolism of M. pneumoniae. The experimentally validated model provides a solid basis for understanding its metabolic regulatory mechanisms.
    • From the environment to the host: re-wiring of the transcriptome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from 22°C to 37°C.

      Barbier, Mariette; Damron, F Heath; Bielecki, Piotr; Suárez-Diez, María; Puchałka, Jacek; Albertí, Sebastian; Dos Santos, Vitor Martins; Goldberg, Joanna B; Synthetic and Systems Biology Research Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany (2014)
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly versatile opportunistic pathogen capable of colonizing multiple ecological niches. This bacterium is responsible for a wide range of both acute and chronic infections in a variety of hosts. The success of this microorganism relies on its ability to adapt to environmental changes and re-program its regulatory and metabolic networks. The study of P. aeruginosa adaptation to temperature is crucial to understanding the pathogenesis upon infection of its mammalian host. We examined the effects of growth temperature on the transcriptome of the P. aeruginosa PAO1. Microarray analysis of PAO1 grown in Lysogeny broth at mid-exponential phase at 22°C and 37°C revealed that temperature changes are responsible for the differential transcriptional regulation of 6.4% of the genome. Major alterations were observed in bacterial metabolism, replication, and nutrient acquisition. Quorum-sensing and exoproteins secreted by type I, II, and III secretion systems, involved in the adaptation of P. aeruginosa to the mammalian host during infection, were up-regulated at 37°C compared to 22°C. Genes encoding arginine degradation enzymes were highly up-regulated at 22°C, together with the genes involved in the synthesis of pyoverdine. However, genes involved in pyochelin biosynthesis were up-regulated at 37°C. We observed that the changes in expression of P. aeruginosa siderophores correlated to an overall increase in Fe²⁺ extracellular concentration at 37°C and a peak in Fe³⁺ extracellular concentration at 22°C. This suggests a distinct change in iron acquisition strategies when the bacterium switches from the external environment to the host. Our work identifies global changes in bacterial metabolism and nutrient acquisition induced by growth at different temperatures. Overall, this study identifies factors that are regulated in genome-wide adaptation processes and discusses how this life-threatening pathogen responds to temperature.
    • Genome-scale metabolic network analysis of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

      Oberhardt, Matthew A; Puchałka, Jacek; Fryer, Kimberly E; Martins dos Santos, Vítor A P; Papin, Jason A; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia Health System, Box 800759, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. (2008-04)
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major life-threatening opportunistic pathogen that commonly infects immunocompromised patients. This bacterium owes its success as a pathogen largely to its metabolic versatility and flexibility. A thorough understanding of P. aeruginosa's metabolism is thus pivotal for the design of effective intervention strategies. Here we aim to provide, through systems analysis, a basis for the characterization of the genome-scale properties of this pathogen's versatile metabolic network. To this end, we reconstructed a genome-scale metabolic network of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. This reconstruction accounts for 1,056 genes (19% of the genome), 1,030 proteins, and 883 reactions. Flux balance analysis was used to identify key features of P. aeruginosa metabolism, such as growth yield, under defined conditions and with defined knowledge gaps within the network. BIOLOG substrate oxidation data were used in model expansion, and a genome-scale transposon knockout set was compared against in silico knockout predictions to validate the model. Ultimately, this genome-scale model provides a basic modeling framework with which to explore the metabolism of P. aeruginosa in the context of its environmental and genetic constraints, thereby contributing to a more thorough understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationships in this resourceful and dangerous pathogen.
    • Genome-scale reconstruction and analysis of the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 metabolic network facilitates applications in biotechnology.

      Puchałka, Jacek; Oberhardt, Matthew A; Godinho, Miguel; Bielecka, Agata; Regenhardt, Daniela; Timmis, Kenneth N; Papin, Jason A; Martins dos Santos, Vítor A P; Synthetic and Systems Biology Group, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research (HZI), Braunschweig, Germany. (2008-10)
      A cornerstone of biotechnology is the use of microorganisms for the efficient production of chemicals and the elimination of harmful waste. Pseudomonas putida is an archetype of such microbes due to its metabolic versatility, stress resistance, amenability to genetic modifications, and vast potential for environmental and industrial applications. To address both the elucidation of the metabolic wiring in P. putida and its uses in biocatalysis, in particular for the production of non-growth-related biochemicals, we developed and present here a genome-scale constraint-based model of the metabolism of P. putida KT2440. Network reconstruction and flux balance analysis (FBA) enabled definition of the structure of the metabolic network, identification of knowledge gaps, and pin-pointing of essential metabolic functions, facilitating thereby the refinement of gene annotations. FBA and flux variability analysis were used to analyze the properties, potential, and limits of the model. These analyses allowed identification, under various conditions, of key features of metabolism such as growth yield, resource distribution, network robustness, and gene essentiality. The model was validated with data from continuous cell cultures, high-throughput phenotyping data, (13)C-measurement of internal flux distributions, and specifically generated knock-out mutants. Auxotrophy was correctly predicted in 75% of the cases. These systematic analyses revealed that the metabolic network structure is the main factor determining the accuracy of predictions, whereas biomass composition has negligible influence. Finally, we drew on the model to devise metabolic engineering strategies to improve production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a class of biotechnologically useful compounds whose synthesis is not coupled to cell survival. The solidly validated model yields valuable insights into genotype-phenotype relationships and provides a sound framework to explore this versatile bacterium and to capitalize on its vast biotechnological potential.
    • Genotypic and phenotypic analyses of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic bronchiectasis isolate reveal differences from cystic fibrosis and laboratory strains.

      Varga, John J; Barbier, Mariette; Mulet, Xavier; Bielecki, Piotr; Bartell, Jennifer A; Owings, Joshua P; Martinez-Ramos, Inmaculada; Hittle, Lauren E; Davis, Michael R; Damron, F Heath; et al. (2015)
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an environmentally ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium and important opportunistic human pathogen, causing severe chronic respiratory infections in patients with underlying conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) or bronchiectasis. In order to identify mechanisms responsible for adaptation during bronchiectasis infections, a bronchiectasis isolate, PAHM4, was phenotypically and genotypically characterized.