• Inclusion body anatomy and functioning of chaperone-mediated in vivo inclusion body disassembly during high-level recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli.

      Rinas, Ursula; Hoffmann, Frank; Betiku, Eriola; Estapé, David; Marten, Sabine; Biochemical Engineering Division, GBF German Research Center for Biotechnology, Mascheroder Weg 1, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. URI@gbf.de (2007-01-01)
      During production in recombinant Escherichia coli, the human basic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF-2) partly aggregates into stable cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. These inclusion bodies additionally contain significant amounts of the heat-shock chaperone DnaK, and putative DnaK substrates such as the elongation factor Tu (ET-Tu) and the metabolic enzymes dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LpdA), tryptophanase (TnaA), and d-tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (GatY). Guanidinium hydrochloride induced disaggregation studies carried out in vitro on artificial aggregates generated through thermal aggregation of purified hFGF-2 revealed identical disaggregation profiles as hFGF-2 inclusion bodies indicating that the heterogenic composition of inclusion bodies did not influence the strength of interactions of hFGF-2 in aggregates formed in vivo as inclusion bodies compared to those generated in vitro from native and pure hFGF-2 through thermal aggregation. Compared to unfolding of native hFGF-2, higher concentrations of denaturant were required to dissolve hFGF-2 aggregates showing that more energy is required for disruption of interactions in both types of protein aggregates compared to the unfolding of the native protein. In vivo dissolution of hFGF-2 inclusion bodies was studied through coexpression of chaperones of the DnaK and GroEL family and ClpB and combinations thereof. None of the chaperone combinations was able to completely prevent the initial formation of inclusion bodies, but upon prolonged incubation mediated disaggregation of otherwise stable inclusion bodies. The GroEL system was particularly efficient in inclusion body dissolution but did not lead to a corresponding increase in soluble hFGF-2 rather was promoting the proteolysis of the recombinant growth factor. Coproduction of the disaggregating DnaK system and ClpB in conjunction with small amounts of the chaperonins GroELS was most efficient in disaggregation with concomitant formation of soluble hFGF-2. Thus, fine-balanced coproduction of chaperone combinations can play an important role in the production of soluble recombinant proteins with a high aggregation propensity not through prevention of aggregation but predominantly through their disaggregating properties.
    • Structure of the Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion translocator chaperone SycD.

      Büttner, Carina R; Sorg, Isabel; Cornelis, Guy R; Heinz, Dirk W; Niemann, Hartmut H; Division of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstrasse 7, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2008-01-25)
      Many Gram-negative bacteria use a type III secretion (T3S) system to directly inject effector molecules into eucaryotic cells in order to establish a symbiotic or pathogenic relationship with their host. The translocation of many T3S proteins requires specialized chaperones from the bacterial cytosol. SycD belongs to a class of T3S chaperones that assists the secretion of pore-forming translocators and, specifically chaperones the translocators YopB and YopD from enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. In addition, SycD is involved in the regulation of virulence factor biosynthesis and secretion. In this study, we present two crystal structures of Y. enterocolitica SycD at 1.95 and 2.6 A resolution, the first experimental structures of a T3S class II chaperone specific for translocators. The fold of SycD is entirely alpha-helical and reveals three tetratricopeptide repeat-like motifs that had been predicted from amino acid sequence. In both structures, SycD forms dimers utilizing residues from the first tetratricopeptide repeat motif. Using site-directed mutagenesis and size exclusion chromatography, we verified that SycD forms head-to-head homodimers in solution. Although in both structures, dimerization largely depends on the same residues, the two assemblies represent alternative dimers that exhibit different monomer orientations and overall shape. In these two distinct head-to-head dimers, both the concave and the convex surface of each monomer are accessible for interactions with the SycD binding partners YopB and YopD. A SycD variant carrying two point mutations in the dimerization interface is properly folded but defective in dimerization. Expression of this stable SycD monomer in Yersinia does not rescue the phenotype of a sycD null mutant, suggesting a physiological relevance of the dimerization interface.