• Structural characterization of Spinacia oleracea trypsin inhibitor III (SOTI-III).

      Glotzbach, Bernhard; Schmelz, Stefan; Reinwarth, Michael; Christmann, Andreas; Heinz, Dirk W; Kolmar, Harald; Institute for Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany. (2013-01)
      In recent decades, several canonical serine protease inhibitor families have been classified and characterized. In contrast to most trypsin inhibitors, those from garden four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) do not share sequence similarity and have been proposed to form the new Mirabilis serine protease inhibitor family. These 30-40-amino-acid inhibitors possess a defined disulfide-bridge topology and belong to the cystine-knot miniproteins (knottins). To date, no atomic structure of this inhibitor family has been solved. Here, the first structure of S. oleracea trypsin inhibitor III (SOTI-III), in complex with bovine pancreatic trypsin, is reported. The inhibitor was synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis on a multi-milligram scale and was assayed to test its inhibitory activity and binding properties. The structure confirmed the proposed cystine-bridge topology. The structural features of SOTI-III suggest that it belongs to a new canonical serine protease inhibitor family with promising properties for use in protein-engineering and medical applications.
    • Structure of the effector-binding domain of the LysR-type transcription factor RovM from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

      Quade, Nick; Dieckmann, Marieke; Haffke, Matthias; Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Dersch, Petra; Heinz, Dirk W; Department of Molecular Structural Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2011-02)
      In enteropathogenic Yersinia, the expression of several early-phase virulence factors such as invasin is tightly regulated in response to environmental cues. The responsible regulatory network is complex, involving several regulatory RNAs and proteins such as the LysR-type transcription regulator (LTTR) RovM. In this study, the crystal structure of the effector-binding domain (EBD) of RovM, the first LTTR protein described as being involved in virulence regulation, was determined at a resolution of 2.4 Å. Size-exclusion chromatography and comparison with structures of full-length LTTRs show that RovM is most likely to adopt a tetrameric arrangement with two distant DNA-binding domains (DBDs), causing the DNA to bend around it. Additionally, a cavity was detected in RovM which could bind small inducer molecules.
    • Structures of the nucleotide-binding domain of the human ABCB6 transporter and its complexes with nucleotides.

      Haffke, Matthias; Menzel, Anja; Carius, Yvonne; Jahn, Dieter; Heinz, Dirk W; Helmholtz Zentrum für Infektionsforschung, Braunschweig, Germany. (2010-09)
      The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB6 is involved in haem-precursor transport across the mitochondrial membrane. The crystal structure of its nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) has been determined in the apo form and in complexes with ADP, with ADP and Mg(2+) and with ATP at high resolution. The overall structure is L-shaped and consists of two lobes, consistent with other reported NBD structures. Nucleotide binding is mediated by the highly conserved Tyr599 and the Walker A motif, and induces notable structural changes. Structural comparison with other structurally characterized NBDs and full-length ABC transporters gives the first insight into the possible catalytic mechanism of ABCB6 and the role of the N-terminal helix alpha(1) in full-length ABCB6.