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Enteric Murine Ganglionitis Induced by Autoimmune CD8 T Cells Mimics Human Gastrointestinal Dysmotility.Sanchez-Ruiz, Monica; Brunn, Anna; Montesinos-Rongen, Manuel; Rudroff, Claudia; Hartmann, Melanie; Schlüter, Dirk; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Deckert, Martina; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Elsevier, 2018-12-27)Inflammatory bowel diseases frequently cause gastrointestinal dysmotility, suggesting that they may also affect the enteric nervous system. So far, the precise mechanisms that lead to gastrointestinal dysmotility in inflammatory bowel diseases have not been elucidated. To determine the effect of CD8 T cells on gastrointestinal motility, transgenic mice expressing ovalbumin on enteric neurons were generated. In these mice, adoptive transfer of ovalbumin-specific OT-I CD8 T cells induced severe enteric ganglionitis. CD8 T cells homed to submucosal and myenteric plexus neurons, 60% of which were lost, clinically resulting in severely impaired gastrointestinal transition. Anti-interferon-γ treatment rescued neurons by preventing their up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I antigen, thus preserving gut motility. These preclinical murine data translated well into human gastrointestinal dysmotility. In a series of 30 colonic biopsy specimens from patients with gastrointestinal dysmotility, CD8 T cell-mediated ganglionitis was detected that was followed by severe loss of enteric neurons (74.8%). Together, the preclinical and clinical data support the concept that autoimmune CD8 T cells play an important pathogenetic role in gastrointestinal dysmotility and may destroy enteric neurons.
OTUB1 inhibits CNS autoimmunity by preventing IFN-γ-induced hyperactivation of astrocytes.Wang, Xu; Mulas, Floriana; Yi, Wenjing; Brunn, Anna; Nishanth, Gopala; Just, Sissy; Waisman, Ari; Brück, Wolfgang; Deckert, Martina; Schlüter, Dirk; et al. (EMBO Press, 2019-04-03)Astrocytes are critical regulators of neuroinflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Growing evidence indicates that ubiquitination of signaling molecules is an important cell-intrinsic mechanism governing astrocyte function during MS and EAE Here, we identified an upregulation of the deubiquitinase OTU domain, ubiquitin aldehyde binding 1 (OTUB1) in astrocytes during MS and EAE Mice with astrocyte-specific OTUB1 ablation developed more severe EAE due to increased leukocyte accumulation, proinflammatory gene transcription, and demyelination in the spinal cord as compared to control mice. OTUB1-deficient astrocytes were hyperactivated in response to IFN-γ, a fingerprint cytokine of encephalitogenic T cells, and produced more proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines than control astrocytes. Mechanistically, OTUB1 inhibited IFN-γ-induced Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling by K48 deubiquitination and stabilization of the JAK2 inhibitor suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1). Thus, astrocyte-specific OTUB1 is a critical inhibitor of neuroinflammation in CNS autoimmunity.